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Location of Phleius
View of part of the archaeological site

Phlius ( ancient Greek Φλειοῦς Phleioûs , Gen. Φλειούντος Phleioúntos , rare Φλιοῦς Phlious , Latin Phlius ) was an ancient, only ionic , then dorisierte city in the northeastern Peloponnese and the main town of the famous for its wine area at the top Asopos .


The city was located in the northeast of the Phliasischen plain about 300 m high about 2 km north of modern Nemea . A road along the Asopos led to Sikyon in the north . Titane was north, Kleonai and the sanctuary of Nemea were east, and Stymphalos was west. The Argolida joined to the south .


Aras is said to have been the first inhabitant of the Phliasic plain. He founded the city of Arantia on a hill. Strabo reported that this hill was 30 stadiums (about 6 km) away from the later Phleius. It is not known where this was. Some suspect it is near Aidonia , others on the Polyfengos or on the hill Agia Irini . Soon after, the city was called Araithyrea . When Heracles returned from the Hesperides , he is said to have come to the city and met with Oineus . Since Oineu's cupbearer was serving bad wine to Kyathos, Heracles hit him on the head with a finger, killing him. Also Amphiaraos should have stayed in Araithyrea. Pausanias was shown a house in which he is said to have prophesied for the first time.

Dysaules, the brother of Keleos , introduced mysteries to Demeter in Araithyrea . When he died he was buried at the place Keleai where the Demeter sanctuary was located. Later the city was moved to the hill we know today and named Phleius after Phlias , son of Dionysus and Araithyrea . Phleius married Chthonophyle and fathered Androdamas . Eventually Rhegnidas moved against the city. The residents surrendered. Some residents did not agree with the rule of Rhegnidas and moved to Klazomenai or with Hippasus to Samos .

Phleius had an aristocratic constitution for most of its history and lasted until after the Peloponnesian War in Sparta . From the second half of the 6th century BC The tyrant Leon has been handed down. 480 BC Phleius sent 200 fighters to the battle of Thermopylae and in the following year even 1,000 men to the battle of Plataiai .

394 BC As a result of a democratic movement, the recently established oligarchy was overthrown and the opponents of democracy banished. Relations with Sparta, which always opposed democratic constitutions, were also affected. A short time later Iphicrates moved against Phleius. He set an ambush and devastated the country. As the Phleiasians advanced, the troops broke out from their ambush and defeated the Phleiasians and slaughtered many. They then withdrew to their city out of fear. You have no choice but to seek help from the Spartans. They sent a contingent to defend the city and when the danger was averted they withdrew without any restrictions. After Agesilaus II had conquered Mantineia , the Spartans were approached and the exiles were taken back in. When there were repeated clashes between the exiles and democrats, Agesilaus II moved in 380 BC. Against Phleius and finally conquered it in 379 BC. After 20 months of siege. Now he set up a hundred-member council in Phleius, half of which consisted of exiles and half of democrats. These should work out a new constitution.

During the Theban War , Phleius remained loyal to Sparta. The Argives occupied the Trikaranon Mountains southeast of Phleius and built a fortification there. Sikyon conquered Thyamia and both of them constantly hit the city. 368 BC The opponents of democracy tried to take over the city. However, this only succeeded when Agesilaus II conquered the city and banished the Democrats. A short time later, Arcadians and Elians went to Epaminondas on the Isthmus of Corinth . As they passed Phleius, the exiles convinced them to help them recapture. However, they were successfully repulsed. An attack by Epaminondas and Euphron of Sicyon in the following year also failed. Athens sent Chares in support of Phleius and in 362 BC. Finally an alliance between the two cities came about.

The sources from the Hellenistic period are sparse. In the Lamian War of 323/2 BC Phleius fought on the side of Macedonia . In 303 the city was taken by Demetrios I Poliorketes . In the second half of the 3rd century BC The tyrant Cleonymos ruled here . At the instigation of Aratos of Sikyon , however, he entered 229 BC. BC and Phleius joined the Achaean covenant . 225 BC BC the city was briefly from Cleomenes III. occupied. During the Second Macedonian-Roman War , 197 BC. The surrounding area was devastated by Macedonian troops.


According to Pausanias, Phleius was a place of worship for the Hebe . Her sanctuary is an asylum site and is associated with a festival called Kissotomoi (ivy cut). There is also a temple of Hera with a marble cult image in Phleius.

Remains of the ancient city can still be found near the village of Agios Georgios (37 ° 38 '36 "N, 22 ° 34' 33" E). Parts of the city wall and a theater were preserved above ground . Among other things, the east gate of the city (so-called "Corinthian Gate"), a small temple on the city hill , possibly sacred to Demeter , and a basilica from the Hellenistic period were also issued.

sons and daughters of the town

Although Phleius was secondary in political terms, it appears to have had a rich cultural life in ancient times. Quite a number of people of great significance for Greek art and culture come from the city:

Also Echecrates , which in Plato's dialogue Phaedo , the title character of Socrates' reported doctrine of immortality, comes from Phlius ( Phaidon 57a), and the research assumes that the strong of Pythagorean embossed thought dialogue plays even a gathering of Pythagoreans in this very city. Diogenes Laertios (VIII 46), who also names Echekrates, attests to the existence of a group of Pythagoreans in Phleius .

Web links

Commons : Phleius  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Pausanias , Travels in Greece 2,12,3.
  2. ^ Pausanias, Journeys in Greece 2,12,4.
  3. Strabo , Geogrphica , p. 382.
  4. ^ Pausanias, Travels in Greece 2,12,5.
  5. ^ Pausanias, Travels in Greece 2,13,7-8.
  6. ^ Pausanias, Travels in Greece 2,14,1-4.
  7. ^ Pausanias, Travels in Greece 2,12,6-13,2.
  8. Diogenes Laertios , On the Lives and Teachings of Famous Philosophers 8.1.
  9. Herodotus , Histories 7,202.
  10. Herodotus, Histories 9.28.
  11. Xenophon , Hellenika 4, 4, 15.
  12. Xenophon, Hellenika 5,3,10.
  13. Xenophon, Hellenika 7,2,1.
  14. Xenophon, Hellenika 7,2,5-9.
  15. Xenophon, Hellenika 7,2,11.
  16. Xenophon, Hellenika 7: 2, 18-23.
  17. ^ Polybios , Historíai 2,44.
  18. Pausanias, Description of Greece 2,12,4; 2.13.3.
  19. For example Theodor Ebert: Platon, Phaidon. Translation and commentary by Theodor Ebert. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2004. ISBN 3-525-30403-X . P. 98.

Coordinates: 37 ° 50 ′ 43.7 "  N , 22 ° 38 ′ 46.8"  E