The lady's slipper genus Phragmipedium ( fʀagmɪ'peːdɪʊm ) of the orchid family (Orchidaceae) consists of 23 species . They grow in Central and South America. It differs from the related genera Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium by the three-cell ovary, from the genus Selenipedium by the different plant structure and from the genus Mexipedium by the significantly larger growth.
The species of the genus Phragmipedium include perennial , herbaceous plants. The growth is sympodial , the individual shoot completes its growth with the inflorescence and sprouts from a basal renewal bud . The shoot is covered with leathery leaves in two rows . These are folded along the central rib and enclose the shoot with the leaf base. There is no separating tissue between the leaf base and the leaf blade.
The racemose or slightly branched inflorescence appears terminal. The inflorescence axis is covered with some bracts at intervals . The flowers open simultaneously or one after the other. The two lateral sepals are fused together, otherwise the petals are free. The petals are greatly elongated in some species, so they can reach 75 cm in length in Phragmipedium caudatum . The lip is shaped like a bag, the edges curved inwards. The column bears two fertile, rounded stamens and a sterile one, which is shaped into a shield-shaped staminodium . The three scars have grown together to form a surface.
Systematics and botanical history
The first described species of this genus was described by John Lindley as Uropedium lindenii in 1846 . Since the justification of the new genus referred to a 'monstrous' species without a shoe-shaped lip, the generic name Phragmipedium , established by Robert Allen Rolfe in 1896 , was later recognized and established as a "nomen conservandum". The orthographic variant Phragmopedilum used by Rolfe in 1901 is a synonym .
- Phragmipedium andreettae P.J. Cribb & Pupulin : It occurs from southern Colombia to northwestern Ecuador.
- Phragmipedium anguloi Braem, Tesón & Manzur : The species first described in 2014 occurs in Colombia.
- Phragmipedium besseae Dodson & J.Kuhn : It occurs in two varieties from Ecuador to northern Peru.
Phragmipedium boissierianum (Rchb.f. & Warsz.) Rolfe : It occurs in three varieties from southern Ecuador to Peru.
- Phragmipedium boissierianum var. Boissierianum
- Phragmipedium boissierianum var. Czerwiakowianum (Rchb.f. & Warsz.) O.Gruss
- Phragmipedium boissierianum var. Reticulatum (Rchb.f.) Pfizer (Syn .: Phragmipedium reticulatum (Rchb.f.) Schltr. )
- Phragmipedium caricinum (Lindl. & Paxton) Rolfe : It occurs from Bolivia to the Brazilian state of Rondônia .
- Phragmipedium caudatum (Lindl.) Rolfe : It occurs from Peru to Bolivia.
- Phragmipedium christiansenianum O.Gruss & Roeth : It occurs in the Brazilian state of Rondônia .
- Phragmipedium dalessandroi Dodson & O.Gruss : It occurs in southeastern Ecuador.
- Phragmipedium fischeri Braem & H.Mohr : It occurs from Colombia to Ecuador.
- Phragmipedium guianense Sambin & Braem : The species first described in 2014 occurs in French Guiana.
Phragmipedium hirtzii Dodson : There have been two varieties since 2017.
- Phragmipedium hirtzii var. Anchicayense (Braem, Tesón & JPFaust) PJCribb : It occurs in the Valle del Cauca in Colombia.
- Phragmipedium hirtzii var. Hirtzii : It occurs from southwestern Colombia to northwestern Ecuador.
Phragmipedium humboldtii (Warsz.) JTAtwood & Dressler (Syn .: Phragmipedium monstruosum Archila ; Phragmipedium triandrum Archila ): There have been two varieties since 2017:
- Phragmipedium humboldtii var. Exstaminodium (Castaño, Hágsater & E.Aguirre) PJCribb & Purver (Syn .: Phragmipedium exstaminodium Castaño, Hágsater & E.Aguirre ): It occurs from the Mexican state of Chiapas to Honduras .
- Phragmipedium humboldtii var. Humboldtii : It occurs in Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
- Phragmipedium klotzschianum (Rchb.f.) Rolfe : It occurs from southeastern Venezuela to Guayana and in the Brazilian state of Roraima .
- Phragmipedium kovachii (Rchb.f.) Rolfe : It occurs in the Amazon region of Peru.
- Phragmipedium lindenii (Lindl.) Dressler & NHWilliams : It occurs from northwestern Venezuela to Ecuador and in the Cusco region of Peru.
Phragmipedium lindleyanum (MRSchomb. Ex Lindl.) Rolfe : There are two varieties:
- Phragmipedium lindleyanum var. Kaieteurum Pfizer (NEBr.) : It comes in Venezuela before.
- Phragmipedium lindleyanum var. Lindleyanum : It occurs from northern South America to the Brazilian state of Roraima .
Phragmipedium longifolium (Warsz. & Rchb.f.) Rolfe : There are two varieties:
- Phragmipedium longifolium var. Hartwegii (Pfizer) Hallier f. (Syn .: Phragmipedium hartwegii (Rchb.f.) Pfitzer ): It occurs from Panama to Ecuador.
- Phragmipedium longifolium var. Longifolium : It occurs from Costa Rica to Ecuador and in the Brazilian state of Goiás .
- Phragmipedium pearcei (Veitch ex J.Dix) Rauh & Senghas : It occurs from Ecuador to northern Peru.
- Phragmipedium ramiroi Kolan. & Szlach. : It occurs in Colombia.
- Phragmipedium sargentianum (Rolfe) Rolfe : It occurs in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco and Bahia .
Phragmipedium schlimii (Linden ex Rchb.f.) Rolfe (Syn .: Phragmipedium manzurii W.E. Higgins & Viveros , Phragmipedium colombianum O.Gruss ): It occurs in two varieties in Colombia:
- Phragmipedium schlimii var. Manzurii (WEHiggins & Viveros) PJCribb
- Phragmipedium schlimii var. Schlimii
- Phragmipedium tetzlaffianum O.Gruss : It occurs in Venezuela.
- Phragmipedium vittatum (Vell.) Rolfe : It occurs in Brazil.
- Phragmipedium warszewiczianum (Rchb.f.) Schltr. : It occurs from Colombia to Ecuador.
So far only the following natural hybrids are known:
- Phragmipedium × brasiliense Quené & O.Gruss = Phragmipedium sargentianum × Phragmipedium vittatum : It occurs in eastern Brazil.
- Phragmipedium × merinoi O.Gruss = Phragmipedium reticulatum × Phragmipedium pearcei : It occurs in Ecuador.
- Phragmipedium × pfitzerianum O.Gruss = Phragmipedium longifolium × Phragmipedium warszewiczianum : It occurs in Ecuador.
- Phragmipedium × richteri Roeth & O.Gruss = Phragmipedium boissierianum × Phragmipedium pearcei . It occurs from Ecuador to Peru.
- Phragmipedium × roethianum O.Gruss & Kalina = Phragmipedium hirtzii × Phragmipedium longifolium : It occurs in Ecuador.
Most of the information in this article comes from:
- Leslie A. Garay: 225 (1). Orchidaceae (Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Neottioideae) . In: Gunnar Harling, Benkt Sparre (ed.): Flora of Ecuador . tape 9 , 1978, ISSN 0347-8742 , p. 14-24 .
- Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Phragmipedium. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- Olaf Gruß: Phragmipedium x merinoi, a new natural hybrid from Ecuador . In: The orchid . 61 (3): 151; 2010