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Paphiopedilum glanduliferum

Paphiopedilum glanduliferum

Order : Asparagales (Asparagales)
Family : Orchids (orchidaceae)
Subfamily : Cypripedioideae
Tribe : Cypripedieae
Sub tribus : Paphiopedilinae
Genre : Paphiopedilum
Scientific name

Paphiopedilum , in German-speaking women shoes or Venus shoes called, is a plant genus within the family of orchids (Orchidaceae). The over 100 species and subspecies are distributed in the Paleotropis from India via Nepal , southern China , Thailand , Malaysia to the Philippines , Borneo , Sumatra and New Guinea . The genus Paphiopedilum is often confused with the genus lady's slipper ( Cypripedium )by laypeople.


Illustration of Paphiopedilum dayanum

Vegetative characteristics

Paphiopedilum species are perennial herbaceous plants . They grow terrestrially , lithophytically in moss, rarely epiphytically . The growth is sympodial , that is, the shoot no longer grows after the vegetation period and a new shoot is formed through the rhizome . The leaves can be marbled or light green, the latter form can be grown cooler.

Generative characteristics

In the upper area of ​​the hairy inflorescence stem there are one or more bracts , over each of which a flower bud stands. The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and threefold. The principal flowering characteristic of Paphiopedilum is the lower Petalum that in the evolution has developed to a shoe-like shape, and the upper sepal, which is larger than other orchids. The two outer petals can sometimes be twisted, for example in Paphiopedilum glanduliferum .


Paphiopedilum species are slightly poisonous in all parts of the plant. The toxins are concentrated in the foliage leaf and stem. The main active ingredient is crystallized calcium oxalate . Eating parts of plants can lead to nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In addition, the quinoid compounds contained in the plant cause contact allergies .


Subgenus Brachypetalum : Paphiopedilum bellatulum
Subgenus Brachypetalum : Paphiopedilum concolor
Subgenus Brachypetalum : Paphiopedilum godefroyae
Subgenus Cochlopetalum : Paphiopedilum glaucophyllum
Subgenus Cochlopetalum : Paphiopedilum liemianum
Subgenus Cochlopetalum : Paphiopedilum moquetteanum

The genus Paphiopedilum was established by Pfitzer in 1886 . Synonyms for Paphiopedilum Pfitzer nom. cons. are: Cordula Raf. , Stimegas Raf. , Menephora Raf.

Species and their distribution

According to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, there are 109 Paphiopedilum species (as of 2020):

  • Subgenus Brachypetalum
    • Paphiopedilum bellatulum (Rchb. F.) Stone : (China to Indochina)
    • Paphiopedilum concolor (Lindl. Ex Bateman) Pfitzer : Up to three varieties are spread from China to Indochina:
      • Paphiopedilum concolor (Lindl. Ex Bateman) Pfitzer var. Concolor : (China to Indochina)
      • Paphiopedilum concolor var. Longipetalum (Rolfe) Pfitzer : (Myanmar and Thailand)
      • Paphiopedilum concolor var. Trungkienii Aver., O.Gruss, CXCanh & NHTuan : It was first described in 2017 as a variety from Vietnam. It has had the rank of a species since 2019.
    • Paphiopedilum godefroyae (God.-Leb.) Stone : There are about two varieties in Thailand:
      • Paphiopedilum godefroyae var. Ang-thong (Fowlie) Braem
      • Paphiopedilum godefroyae (God.-Leb.) Stone var. Godefroyae
    • Paphiopedilum niveum (Rchb. F.) Stone (Syn .: Paphiopedilum × pereirae (Ridl.) P.Taylor ): (Thailand to Malaysia and Borneo)
    • Paphiopedilum leucochilum (Rolfe) Fowlie : (Thailand)

Natural hybrids

The list of natural hybrids is based on the World Check List of selected Plant Families :

  • Paphiopedilum × aspersum Aver. ( Paphiopedilum barbigerum var. Lockianum × Paphiopedilum henryanum ) (Vietnam)
  • Paphiopedilum × burbidgei (Rchb.f.) Pfitzer, ( Paphiopedilum dayanum × Paphiopedilum javanicum var. Virens ) (Borneo)
  • Paphiopedilum × cribbii Aver. ( Paphiopedilum appletonianum × Paphiopedilum villosum ) (Vietnam)
  • Paphiopedilum × cribbii nothovar. yunnanicum (ZJLiu & SCChen) JMHShaw ex Govaerts ( Paphiopedilum appletonianum × Paphiopedilum villosum var. densissimum ) (China)
  • Paphiopedilum × crossianum (Rchb.f.) Stein (Syn .: Paphiopedilum × venustoinsigne Pradhan ) ( Paphiopedilum insigne × Paphiopedilum venustum ) (Assam)
  • Paphiopedilum × dalatense Aver. ( Paphiopedilum callosum × Paphiopedilum villosum var.annamense ) (Vietnam)
  • Paphiopedilum × dixlerianum Braem & Chiron ( Paphiopedilum callosum × Paphiopedilum wardii ) (Myanmar)
  • Paphiopedilum × expansum J.T. Atwood ( Paphiopedilum hennisianum × Paphiopedilum philippinense ) (Philippines)
  • Paphiopedilum × fanaticum co-op. & N. Haseg. ( Paphiopedilum malipoense × Paphiopedilum micranthum ) (China)
  • Paphiopedilum × frankeanum Rolfe ( Paphiopedilum superbiens × Paphiopedilum tonsum ) (Sumatra)
  • Paphiopedilum × glanzii O.Gruss & Perner ( Paphiopedilum emersonii × Paphiopedilum micranthum ) (China)
  • Paphiopedilum × grussianum H.S.Hua ( Paphiopedilum dianthum × Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum var. Esquirolei ) (China)
  • Paphiopedilum × huangrongshuanum Petchl. & O.Gruss ( Paphiopedilum dianthum × Paphiopedilum gratrixianum ) (China)
  • Paphiopedilum × kimballianum (Rchb.f.) Rolfe ( Paphiopedilum dayanum × Paphiopedilum rothschildianum ) (Borneo (Kinabalu))
  • Paphiopedilum × littleanum (Anon.) Rolfe ( Paphiopedilum dayanum × Paphiopedilum lawrenceanum ) (Borneo)
  • Paphiopedilum × mattesii Pittenauer ex Roeth & O.Gruss ( Paphiopedilum barbatum × Paphiopedilum bullenianum ) (Malaysia)
  • Paphiopedilum × petchleungianum O.Gruss ( Paphiopedilum dianthum × Paphiopedilum villosum ) (China)
  • Paphiopedilum × polystigmaticum (Rchb.f.) Stein (Syn .: Paphiopedilum × spicerovenustum Pradhan ) ( Paphiopedilum spicerianum × Paphiopedilum venustum ) (Assam)
  • Paphiopedilum × powellii Christenson ( Paphiopedilum callosum × Paphiopedilum exul ) (Thailand)
  • Paphiopedilum × pradhanii Pradhan ( Paphiopedilum fairrieanum × Paphiopedilum venustum ) (Eastern Himalayas)
  • Paphiopedilum × shipwayae Rolfe ( Paphiopedilum dayanum × Paphiopedilum hookerae ). (Borneo)
  • Paphiopedilum × siamense (Rolfe) Rolfe ( Paphiopedilum appletonianum × Paphiopedilum callosum ) (Thailand)
  • Paphiopedilum × vietenryanum O.Gruss & Petchl. ( Paphiopedilum gratrixianum × Paphiopedilum henryanum ) (China (Yunnan))
  • Paphiopedilum × yingjiangense Z.J.Liu & SCChen ( Paphiopedilum spicerianum × Paphiopedilum wardii ): It occurs in Yunnan.


  • Harold Koopowitz: Revised Checklist of the genus Paphiopedilum, A . In: Orchid Digest . tape 64 , no. 4 , 2000 (English).
  • GJ Braem, Charles O. Baker, Margaret L. Baker: The Genus Paphiopedilum. Natural History and Cultivation . tape 1 . Botanical Publishers, Kissimmee (Florida) 1998 (English).
  • Phillip Cribb : The Genus Paphiopedilum. A Kew Magazine Monograph . 2nd Edition. Timber Press, 1999.
  • GJ Braem, G. Chiron: Paphiopedilum. Tropicalia, 2003.
  • Harold Koopowitz: An updated, annotated checklist of the genus Paphiopedilum. In: Orchid Digest , Volume 76, Issue 4, 2012, pp. 178–215.

Individual evidence

  1. a b Lutz Roth, Max Daunderer, Kurt Kormann: Toxic Plants - Plant Poisons. Occurrence, effect, therapy, allergic and phototoxic reactions. With a special section about poisonous animals. 5th expanded edition. Nikol, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-86820-009-6 .
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.) : Paphiopedilum. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved March 13, 2020.

Web links

Commons : Paphiopedilum  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

further reading