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The Queiskreis is a historical landscape in the southeast of Upper Lusatia . In 1815 the area fell to the Province of Silesia and after the Second World War in 1945 to Poland.

Bautzen Queiskreis. Map by Matthäus Seutter 1730–60


The Queis circle, which was roughly the shape of a triangle and about 100 km² in size, formed the southeastern tip of Upper Lusatia, with which it was connected by a narrow strip of land. The northeast to below Marklissa was bounded by Queis , which at the same time formed the border with Silesia . The Bohemian-Lausitz border ran in the Jizera Mountains in the southwest of the Queiskreis and the south was bordered by the 1123 m high table spruce . In the course of time there were two geographical deviations:

  • From 1346 the Friedeberg on the left of the Queis was counted as part of the Duchy of Schweidnitz-Jauer , which was on the right of the Queis and was a Bohemian hereditary principality from 1368.
  • After Friedersdorf, which initially belonged to Silesia and to the right of the Queis, was acquired in 1427 by the imperial councilor Hartung von Klüx, who linked it with his rule of Tzschocha , it was counted as part of the Queis district, to which it officially belonged from 1544. When it was sold to Johann Ernst von Warnsdorf in 1651, it was released from the Tzschocha rule, but not from the Queiskreis.


The Queiskreis belonged to the Meissnian and then to the Bohemian Gau Zagost until 1158 . Its special position resulted from

  • that the area was not integrated into the surrounding soft patches,
  • the landlords were directly subordinate to the Lehnhof and the court court in Bautzen , which is why it was also called the "Budissiner Queiskreis".
  • In addition, the area was ecclesiastically - with the exception of Marklissa - until 1307 to Seidenberg , which was incorporated into the diocese of Meissen .

After the Ascanians died out in 1319, the Queiskreis came to the Duke Heinrich I von Jauer together with the Land of Görlitz , which was formed from the soft formations of Görlitz , Lauban and the Queiskreis and was raised to the Duchy of Görlitz in 1377 . After his death in 1346, the Queiskkreis fell back to the Crown of Bohemia as a settled fiefdom . Since Duke Heinrich I was married to Agnes, a daughter of the Bohemian King Wenceslaus II , and the Duchy of Schweidnitz-Jauer also fell to Bohemia after the death of Duke Bolko II in 1368, the Queiskreis lost its strategic importance.

Administratively, the Queiskreis was divided into three districts, the boundaries of which were determined by the castles of Lesne , Schwerta and Tzschocha . It was not until 1592 that the borders were changed, when the castle district of Schwerta was divided into three parts after the Uechtritz family branch there ceased to exist. It is thanks to the evangelically believing landlords of Uechtritz and von Gersdorf that the numerous expelled exiles found a place to stay. A well-documented example of an exile flight is that of the subjects from Rochlitz an der Iser / Rokytnice, under the leadership of the village judge George Gernert and Nathalin Langhammer.

After the Peace of Prague , the Queiskreis fell together with Upper Lusatia in 1635 to the Evangelical Electorate of Saxony . This made it an immigration area for religious refugees from Bohemia and Silesia. They turned mainly to linen production and founded numerous new settlements from 1650, including the towns of Goldentraum and Wigandsthal , the villages of Neu Gebhardsdorf, Estherwalde and Augustenthal. For the evangelicals from the Silesian border areas, refuge churches were built in Friedersdorf and Nieder Wiesa near Greiffenberg and in Marklissa, Rengersdorf, Ober Wiesa and Gebhardsdorf .

After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, East Oberlausitz, including Lauban and the Queiskreis, fell to Prussia . The area was incorporated into the province of Silesia , with which it shared its further history. As a result of the Second World War, the area fell to Poland in 1945.

Places in the Queiskreis

Places marked with * were established for exiles .


Individual evidence

  1. Joachim Bahlcke : The Upper Lusatia. Historical space, national awareness and historiography from the Middle Ages to the 20th century . In: Ders.:, (Ed.): History of Upper Lusatia . Leipziger Uviersitätverlag 2001, ISBN 3-935693-46-X , p. 12
  2. ^ Krzysztof R. Mazurski: Processes of the settlement of Protestants in Silesia from the 16th to the 19th century . In: Klaus Fehn u. a., Working Group for Genetic Settlement Research in Central Europe (Ed.): Settlement Research, Archeology-History-Geography . tape 20 . Settlement research, Bonn 2002, p. 153 .

Coordinates: 51 ° 0 '  N , 15 ° 18'  E