Red currant ( Ribes rubrum )
The white currant, which is often horticultural differentiated from the red currant, is only one color variant of the red currant.
The red currant is an upright, deciduous shrub without thorns that reaches heights of 1 to 2 meters. The bark of young twigs is lightly hairy and covered with glands. The bark of older branches is reddish-brown to gray-black. The egg-shaped buds have loose bud scales and are 5 to 7 mm in length.
The alternate leaves are simple. The leaf blade is round in shape and is 4 to 10 centimeters long and 3 to 7 centimeters wide. It is three- to five-lobed and heart-shaped at the base, the leaf lobes are blunt and roughly serrated at the edge. The underside of the leaf is hairy with short fluff when young , later glabrous. At 3 to 6 cm, the petiole is about as long as the leaf blade and just as pure green. The base of the petioles is usually bare or rarely covered with long, glandless hairs and individual sessile glands.
The hermaphrodite, five-fold flower has a diameter of 6 to 8 mm and is greenish-yellow or reddish in color. A pentagonal, raised ring is located inside the wheel-shaped spreading flower cup. The five fused sepals are bare, greenish or brownish-red in color, partly dotted red, spatulate and about twice as long as the petals. The calyx tube is 1 to 1.5 mm long and the upright calyx tips are 2 to 2.5 mm long. The five yellowish to purple-colored petals are 0.5 to 1 mm long. There is only one circle with five fertile stamens that are at least as long as the petals. The halves of the anthers are separated by the elongated stamen and easily spread apart. The stylus is also at least as long as the petals and is bilobed.
The smooth, mostly spherical berries have a diameter of 6 to 11 millimeters, are round, red or white, sometimes pink, translucent and contain numerous seeds . The calyx can still be clearly seen on the berry. The berries are edible, juicy and have a sour taste.
The number of chromosomes is n = 8.
The red currant is a nanophanerophyte .
In terms of flower biology, they are "nectar-bearing disc flowers". The pollination occurs particularly by hymenoptera . The red currant is attacked by the rust fungi Puccinia ribis with Telien and Cronartium ribicola with Uredien and Telien.
The red currant is widespread in almost all of Europe. It only occurs in the wild in Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Poland, in the rest of Europe it is feral from culture. It is very rarely found in alluvial forests, ravines, bushes and along streams. It prefers wet, clayey soil and is a character species of the Ribeso-Fraxinetum from the Alno-Ulmion association.
There are two varieties:
- Wild red currant ( Ribes rubrum L. var. Rubrum ): the wild family of garden currants. It forms creeping shoots, the leaves are often a bit shiny and wrinkled on the top and the berries are small.
- Red garden currant ( Ribes rubrum var. Domesticum Wallr. ): It is the cultivated form. It is not uncommon for it to appear wild.
The spiked currant ( Ribes spicatum Robson in With. 1796) is a closely related species that is native to Northern Europe and Siberia; some taxonomists consider it a subspecies of Ribes rubrum . This species is involved in some cultivars of the red currant (crossed). It is very rarely overgrown.
Synonyms for Ribes rubrum L. are: Ribes scandicum Hedlund , Ribes sylvestre Syme .
The red currant has been in cultivation since the 15th century. Today's varieties go back to crossings with the rock currant ( Ribes petraeum ), the spiked currant ( Ribes spicatum ) and the tassel currant ( Ribes multiflorum ). They are sometimes grafted onto the golden currant ( Ribes aureum ) and thereby refined. Some of them are overgrown and naturalized.
The red currant is a popular garden plant because of its fruits. The fruits are often eaten raw or, for example, as jelly or juice, or as an important ingredient for red grits, in a variety of ways in the kitchen . In beekeeping , red currants are a valued sideline due to the high sugar content of their nectar (16–31%) and its high sugar value (up to 0.7 mg sugar / day per flower) .
Red currant varieties
- Jonkheer van Tets
- Grape miracle
- White Versailles
- Gunter Steinbach (Ed.): Shrub trees (Steinbach's natural guide). Mosaik Verlag GmbH, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-576-10560-3 .
- Ribes rubrum in the Flora of China . (Section description)
- Ruprecht Düll , Herfried Kutzelnigg : Pocket dictionary of plants in Germany and neighboring countries. The most common Central European species in portrait . 7th, corrected and enlarged edition. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2011, ISBN 978-3-494-01424-1 . (Section ecology)
- red currant. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Peter Zwetko: The rust mushrooms Austria. Supplement and host-parasite directory to the 2nd edition of the Catalogus Florae Austriae, III. Part, Book 1, Uredinales. (PDF; 1.8 MB).
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . 8th edition. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 . Page 495.
- Helmut Horn, Cord Lüllmann: Das große Honigbuch , Kosmos, Stuttgart 3rd edition 2006, p. 30. ISBN 3-440-10838-4
- Red currant. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Red currant . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Profile and distribution map for Bavaria . In: Botanical Information Hub of Bavaria .
- Ribes rubrum L. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora . Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Distribution in the northern hemisphere according to: Eric Hultén , Magnus Fries: Atlas of North European vascular plants 1986, ISBN 3-87429-263-0
- Thomas Meyer: Data sheet with identification key and photos at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland (old name of the website: Flowers in Swabia )