Salmānu-ašarēd I.

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Salmānu-ašarēd I. ( Šulmānu-ašarēd I or Shalmaneser I , analogous to the biblical Shalmaneser V ) was a Middle Assyrian king. His name means: "Salmānu is the supreme god". As the son of Adad-nārārī I , he ruled the Assyrian Empire for 30 years as king according to the Assyrian king list .

author Reign Remarks
Freydank 1991 1263-1234

He was the son and successor of the Assyrian king Adad-nārārī I and, like his predecessors, carried the title "governor of Bel and priest of Aššur ". He also called himself great king and king of the whole (after the Babylonian rab kiššati ).

When he ascended the throne, the country of Uruadri rebelled, which is usually equated with the later kingdom of Urartu . The king raised his hand in prayer, gathered his armies and began a campaign in the mountains. He claims to have captured eight countries and 51 cities. "In three days I threw the entire land of Uruadri at the feet of Aššur, their men became as low as corpses and fear filled them." Salmānu-ašarēd took a heavy toll on the land, which indicates that he could not establish permanent rule . He also subjugated the rebellious mountain fortress of Arina , "the sanctuary, founded on solid rock" and took the land of Musri , against which Aššur-uballiṭ I had already fought . Kutmuhu was also subjected. Šalmānu-ašarēd also led a campaign against Hanilgabat ( eponymous official Aššur-nadin-šumate). In the same year the country of KIRIURI rebelled against the Assyrian rule.

Šalmānu-ašarēd corresponded with the court of the Hittites . A letter from Dur Kurigalzu to the king of Babylon mentions that the king of Assyria's messenger was released after being detained in Hatti for three years. He returned to Aššur with a Hittite messenger . If Betina Faist's assumption that it can be dated to the time of Shalmaneser is correct, it proves that the Assyrian and Hatti were seriously upset, presumably in connection with the Assyrian attack on Šattuara II of Hanilgabat. According to a cuneiform text from Boğazkale , he went from a little king to a great king (KUB XXIII 103: 27 and 92: 5). This, too, is usually associated with the conquest of Mittani , but does not fit with the previous negative reaction of the Hittites.

Salmānu-ašarēd built a palace in Niniveh , restored the Ištar temple there and renewed Kalḫu at the mouth of the Upper Zab in the Tigris .

Eponymous officials

  • Aššur-nadin-šumate


  • Helmut Freydank : Contributions to Central Assyrian chronology and history. Berlin 1991.
  • AT Olmstead: Kashshites, Assyrians, and the Balance of Power . In: The American Journal of Semitic Languages ​​and Literatures . Volume 36, No. 2, 1920, pp. 120-153.
  • Karen Radner: The god Salmānu ('Šulmānu') and his relationship with the city of Dūr-Katlimmu . In: World of the Orient . 29, 1998, pp. 33-51.

Individual evidence

  1. Text (RIM text number): A.0.77.1, see Albert Kirk Grayson : The Royal inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Assyrian periods. (RIMA) Volume I, University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1987, pp. 180-186.
  2. ^ O. Gurney: Texts from Kur-Durigalzu. In: Iraq. Volume 11, 1949, p. 148.
  3. Betina Faist : The long-distance trade of the Assyrian Empire between the 14th and 11th centuries before Christ. In: AOAT No. 265, Ugarit, Münster 2001, p. 236.
  4. For identification as Salmanasser I. see MB Rowton: The Background of the Treaty between Ramesses II. And Hattušiliš III. In: Journal of Cuneiform Studies. Volume 13, No. 1, 1959, Note 45.
predecessor Office successor
Adad-nirari I. Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I.