Salmānu-ašarēd III. ( Šulmānu-ašarēd III. Or Shalmaneser III. In analogy to the biblical Shalmaneser V ) was from 858 BC. BC to 824 BC Chr. King of the Assyrian Empire . His name means: Salmānu is the supreme god . He succeeded his father Aššur-nâṣir-apli II as the second king of the New Assyrian Empire and continued his policy of conquest.
As the son of Aššur-nâṣir-apli II and his wife Mullissu-mukannišat-Ninua , he was the focus of his father's great plans from birth. As an heir, he received the name of the former king Salmānu-ašarēd I , whom his father probably regarded as a great role model. So he moved the residence to today's Nimrud , a town called Kalḫu or Kalach in Assyrian times, built by Salmānu-ašarēd I about 500 years earlier. Above it he had a huge palace built, which he finally left to his son as the center of a new great power.
After the accession to the throne Salmānu-ašarēd III. his father's final resting place in the long-prepared crypt of the disused Old Palace in Aššur. German excavators rediscovered it after the Second World War and it still contained the smashed remains of the basalt coffin. Then he set about the task of continuing the work. Salmānu-ašarēd III turned out to be. as a warlike king like his father and he extended the borders of the empire in all directions with his field marshal Dajan-Aššur as commander in chief.
In the first year of his reign, the inscription on a throne base from Nimrud reports, he was able to symbolically dip his sword into the “ Sea of Nairi ” ( Lake Van or Lake Urmia ). Allied with Babylonia, he then gradually consolidated the Assyrian sovereignty over Syria and Palestine. Numerous princes had to pay tribute. Including Jehu and in the year 853 BC Chr. Ahab , in the Bible as the kings of Israel are mentioned. Only the conquest of the Aramaic Damascus was denied to him despite great efforts. The city had played a key role in the formation of an anti-Assyrian alliance of city-states, which Salmānu-ašarēd III. had opposed in the shaft of Qarqar . In the mountainous north there was a successful trial of strength with the Urartu Empire . The campaign, however, required such great forces that a permanent occupation was out of the question.
In addition to victory steles, which mark the end points of his expeditions, his war reports are also preserved to this day on his famous black obelisk and on the approximately seven-meter-high bronze gate in Balawat . The most significant works of art from his reign are the palace doors of Imgur-Enlil (Balawat C). The Kurchstele provides a list of his opponents.
Towards the end of his tenure, there was an uprising of 27 city-states under the leadership of his eldest son Aššur-danin-apla . He could no longer master this before his death. His son and heir Šamši-Adad V was dependent on the support of Marduk-zākir-šumi I from Babylon and was only able to decide the power struggle in his favor after six years of civil war.
|1st year||858 BC Chr.||Ḫubuškia (west of Lake Urmia ), Karkemish , Amanus Mountains and areas on the Mediterranean Sea|
|2nd year||857 BC Chr.||Ahunu from Bit Adini , Hatti ( headwaters from Euphrates and Tigris to the Mediterranean Sea)|
|3rd year||856 BC Chr.||Bit Adini, Nairi (including Arzaškun ), Urartu and Ḫubuškia|
|4th year||855 BC Chr.||Ahunu by Bit Adini|
|5th year||854 BC Chr.||Mazamua and Kaššiari Mountains (Tur Abdin)|
|06th year||853 BC Chr.||Aram ( Battle of Qarqar / Battle of an anti-Assyrian coalition), Hatti and Aleppo|
|07th year||852 BC Chr.||Tribute of the Nairi countries|
|08th year||851 BC Chr.||Babylonian king Marduk-zakir-šumi I. offers alliance due to Civil war.|
|09th year||850 BC Chr.||New support for Babylon , tribute reception from Bit Amukani and train to the Persian Gulf|
|10th year||849 BC Chr.||Carchemish, Aram and Hamath|
|11th year||848 BC Chr.||Renewed uprisings by Aram and Hamath (led by Hadad-Eser and Irhuleni ); Tribute from Qalparunda of Unqi|
|12th year||847 BC Chr.||City of Paqarahubuna|
|13th year||846 BC Chr.||Matiate in the eastern Kaššiari Mountains|
|14th year||845 BC Chr.||Another uprising of Aram and Hamath (Hadad-ezer and Irhuleni)|
|15th year||844 BC Chr.||Another train to the Nairi countries|
|16th year||843 BC Chr.||Mazamua, Namri , King Marduk-mudammiq flees.|
|17th year||842 BC Chr.||Tribute from Hatti, cedar falls in the Amanus Mountains|
|18th year||841 BC Chr.||Renewed uprising by a coalition led by Aram; last mention of Hadad-ezer|
|19th year||840 BC Chr.||Hunting in the Hatti area; Cedar falls in the Amanus Mountains|
|20th year||839 BC Chr.||"Muster" of the kings of Hatti ("Aram coalition"); Advance to Qu'e|
|21st year||838 BC Chr.||Another revolt of Aram; first mention of Hasael|
|22nd year||837 BC Chr.||Tabal (south of Kayseri )|
|23rd year||836 BC Chr.||Tribute reception from Tabal|
|24th year||835 BC Chr.||Advance to Namri in Parsua ; Receiving the tribute of 27 kings; first mention of the Medes|
|25th year||834 BC Chr.||Qu'e and taking Aramu fortress from Bit Agusi (Land of Jahan between Karkemish, Godmother and Hamat)|
|26th year||833 BC Chr.||Qu'e, Tarsis and Cedar Falls in the Amanus Mountains|
|27th year||832 BC Chr.||Urartu and clash with Seduru (Sarduri I.)|
|28th year||831 BC Chr.||Unqi riot is put down|
|29th year||830 BC Chr.||without registration|
|30th year||829 BC Chr.||Another campaign against Ḫubuškia, Mannaeans and Parsua|
|31st year||828 BC Chr.||Another campaign against Muṣaṣir , Urartu and Namri|
|32nd year||827 BC Chr.||without registration|
|33rd year||826 BC Chr.||without registration|
|34th year||825 BC Chr.||without registration|
|35th year||824 BC Chr.||without registration|
- M. Elat: The campaigns of Shalmaneser III. against Aram and Israel . In: Israel Exploration Journal . Volume 25, Jerusalem 1975, .
- Brad E. Kelle: What's in a Name? Neo-Assyrian designations for the Northern Kingdom and their implications for Israelite history and Biblical interpretation . In: Journal of Biblical Literature . Vol. 121, No. 4, Atlanta 2002, pp. 639-666, .
- Dietz-Otto Edzard : History of Mesopotamia . CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51664-5 .
- Jonathan Robker: Shalmaneser III . In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (Eds.): The Scientific Biblical Lexicon on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff.
- The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
- Bronze Reliefs from the Gates of Shalmaneser
- Herrmann children, Werner Hilgemann : dtv-Atlas world history . 40th edition. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag , Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-423-03331-2 , pp. 29 .
- Hartmut Schmökel : Ur, Assur and Babylon . In: Great Cultures of the Early Period . tape 12 . Phaidon Verlag, Akademische / Athenaion, Kilpper Collection, Stuttgart 1985, ISBN 3-88851-091-0 , p. 100 f .
- P. Hulin: The Inscriptions on the Carved Throne-Base of Shalmaneser III . In: Iraq . No. 25/1 , 1963, pp. 48-69 (English).
- See also: Dietz Otto Edzard: History of Mesopotamiens . CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2004, pp. 196–198.
- Report on the black obelisk of the coalition of Adad-idri (Hadad-ezer) from Aram, Irhuleni from Hamat and Ahab (A-ha-ab-bu) from Israel (KUR sir 3 -la-aa) opposite. The identification of A-ha-ab-bu with Ahab is doubted by some researchers (Kelle 2002, 642). The Battle of Qarqar ended with no final victory for Shalmaneser III.
- King Jehu of Israel is mentioned regarding Hazael. In the Tel-Dan inscription , Hasael further reports of a conflict with Jehu (a siege of Jehu is mentioned, but the inscription does not give any further details due to missing fragments). Since Jehu's tribute to Shalmaneser III. took place, Jehu's accession to government must be between the 18th and 21st year of the reign (approx. 841/840 BC).
858–824 BC Chr.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Šulmānu-ašarēd III .; Shalmaneser III; Schulmanu-aschared III .; Sulmanu-asared III .; Shalmanasher III.|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||King of Assyria|
|DATE OF BIRTH||9th century BC Chr.|
|DATE OF DEATH||around 824 BC Chr.|