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Order : Gingery (Zingiberales)
Family : Ginger family (Zingiberaceae)
Subfamily : Zingiberoideae
Tribe : Zingibereae
Genre : Scaphochlamys
Scientific name

The plant genus Scaphochlamys belongs to the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The approximately 31 species are common in Southeast Asia. Nothing is known about its use.


Appearance, roots and leaves

Scaphochlamys species grow as relatively low, perennial herbaceous plants . They thrive terrestrially and form mostly horizontal, sometimes sloping or upright rhizomes on the surface or in the ground , which are always thin and lignified. There are two types of root systems depending on the species. Some of the species form dense mats of fine roots. Species whose rhizomes creep more on the surface form long, tendon-like support roots that serve as anchoring and keep the shoots upright. Above-ground shoots that follow one another on the rhizome are close together or far apart, depending on the species. The base of the shoot is encased by bald to densely hairy leaf sheaths that have no petiole or blade, are often dry-skinned and rot over time.

Each shoot has one or many leaves that develop directly on the rhizome. The alternate leaves have a leaf sheath, a petiole and a leaf blade. The leaf sheaths of the leaves have a broad, membranous margin and are glabrous or hairy. The species native to Borneo have a cushion at the base of the leaves. The triangular, bilobed, membranous and delicate leaf membranes (ligules) are arranged, depending on the species, from the base of the leaf side to the base of the leaf blade and can be a few centimeters long; in some species they can be quickly ephemeral. The relatively thin, mostly channel-shaped, sometimes petiolate petioles are hairy or glabrous. The simple, herbaceous leaf blades are mostly elliptical, sometimes oval, egg-shaped, linear or lanceolate; they can be symmetrical, but mostly they are slightly asymmetrical. The base of the blade, which almost always runs down the petiole, is usually narrowed, sometimes rounded or heart-shaped. The upper end of the leaf blade is usually pointed to acuminate, sometimes prickly or has a broad tip. The upper side of the leaf is dark green, sometimes with white markings. The underside of the leaves is light green, sometimes tinged with purple; it is hairy along the midrib. The leaf margin is smooth. There is parallel veining, all leaf veins arise from the midrib and run towards the leaf edge; an exception is Scaphochlamys reticosa with reticulate veins.

Inflorescences and flowers

The leafless inflorescence stems are located directly on the rhizome. On the inflorescence axis, which can lengthen over time, there are usually many bracts arranged in a spiral, sometimes in two lines and alternately ; the inflorescence can be compact or loose, in the latter case the axis of the inflorescence can be seen between the bracts. In the indeterminate inflorescence there are many flowers from its base to the tip. The firm to thin, bald to densely hairy bracts are broad, egg-shaped, boat-shaped, spatulate and linear with a base surrounding the stem. The colors of the bracts range from green to red-brown to red and sometimes tinted purple. The first cover sheet is offset by 180 ° with respect to the uppermost support sheet and all cover sheets are shorter than the support sheets. The bracts are offset by 180 ° on top of each other and there is a flower above each. The bald to finely hairy bracts are boat-shaped to linear, two-keeled, with overlapping but never overgrown edges, with a pointed to three-lobed upper end. Sometimes a few bracts stand together, they usually get smaller gradually towards the top. The inflorescences often contain many flowers. With some kinds the inflorescences are reduced to a few to one bracts, bracts and flowers.

The hermaphrodite, yellow to orange flowers are threefold and zygomorphic with a double flower envelope . The three sepals are fused Roehrig; the calyx tube is shorter than the first wrapper, tears on one side and usually ends in three short calyx teeth. The colors of the petals range from mostly white to light yellow to light green. The three petals are fused into a relatively long tube. The corolla tube, which is sometimes finely haired, is narrow at its base and widens towards the top. The three mostly white, bald corolla lobes are linear. The middle, mostly stiff corolla lobes are boat-shaped and bent back, and the lateral corolla lobes are narrow with a pointed upper end. The lateral crown lobes have a pointed, hood-like upper end. Often the petals are small and hidden. The two lateral crown lobes have a rounded upper end. In some species all (fertile and staminodial) stamens can be covered with small glandular hairs. Of the original six stamens , only the middle stamen of the inner circle is fertile . This stamen is bent over the labellum and points downwards; its broad stamen is fused with the corolla tube. Its dust bag has a curved, three-lobed extension, the two counters open with a longitudinal slit and have a short spur at their base. All other stamens are transformed into staminodes . The middle staminodium of the outer circle is always missing. The two lateral staminodes of the outer circle are corolla-like, elongated to obovate and obliquely spread out with a rounded upper end. The two lateral staminodes of the inner circle have grown together to form a labellum . The obovate to nailed, flat labellum is usually bilobed at the upper end, sometimes with entire margins. The labellum is slightly grooved from the center towards the base, this groove is more or less hairy. The color of the labellum is white with a yellow central stripe and laterally different colored drawings, for example pink, purple or red, sometimes with strongly colored sap marks near the base. The labellum is the most conspicuous part of the flower. Three carpels are a small, creamy white, bald until finely hairy, almost spherical, with permanent, three or single-chamber (syncarp) ovary grown. There is a pair of nectar glands on the ovary. The long, very thin stylus ends in a rounded, cup-shaped scar that has a row of eyelashes that vary in length and thickness. In some species the stylus lies in a groove in the corolla tube.

Fruits and seeds

The fruits are covered by the durable bracts. The triple capsule fruits are ellipsoid and often contain only one to a few seeds. The ellipsoidal, dark brown to black seeds have a white aril , which is frayed at its base.

Chromosome numbers

The chromosome numbers are 2n = 26, 28.

Systematics and distribution

The distribution area of ​​the genus Scaphochlamys extends from southern Thailand (four species) over the Malaysian peninsula to northern Borneo (eight species) and Sumatra (one species). The center of biodiversity is the Malaysian Peninsula.

The first description of scaphochlamys was made in 1892 by John Gilbert Baker in The Flora of British India , 6, S. 252 (Editor Joseph Dalton Hooker ). The type species is Scaphochlamys malaccana Baker , it was the only species in the first publication of this genus. A synonym for Scaphochlamys Baker is Hitcheniopsis (Baker) Ridl. The genus Scaphochlamys belongs to the tribe Zingibereae in the subfamily Zingiberoideae in the family Zingiberaceae .

There are approximately 43 species of Scaphochlamys and six varieties:


Individual evidence

  1. First publication scanned at .
  2. ^ Scaphochlamys at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
  3. ^ Scaphochlamys in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Scaphochlamys. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved August 13, 2018.