The skating technique is a style of cross-country skiing in which the leg kick is done using the skate stride. This style has established itself as a revolutionary development in cross-country skiing since the mid-1980s and enables faster movement compared to the classic style. Since 1985 international competitions have been carried out separately in the classical and in the free technique , whereby the skating technique is used in competitions with free technique.
In contrast to the classic technique, the ski can be completely designed for gliding and does not require a stick zone in the middle of the ski. The skis used are usually a little shorter when skating and the poles a little longer. There are skis that are, as a compromise, conditionally suitable for both the classic technique and skating, but recreational runners also usually use separate equipment for both techniques. In contrast to the classic technique, the cross-country trails are not groomed when skating, but only rolled to a sufficient width, so they do not offer great lateral stability for the skis. The skating technique is considered to be more difficult to learn than the classic technique and is more strenuous, as the slowest possible execution requires a lot of energy, especially on climbs. In order to be able to train as specifically as possible in the summer, skating- ski rollers are used in particular by high-performance runners or other sports related to inline skating are practiced.
Advent of skating
One-sided ice skating steps when changing direction and two-sided in the final spurt have always been part of the technique of a racer in cross-country skiing. At the beginning of the 1970s, the first signs of increased use of the ice-skating step could be observed. Strictly speaking, the origins of this form of movement go back even earlier: the single-pole catapult technique in medieval Scandinavia used two skis of different lengths. The longer one, the Glider , was used for gliding and the shorter, the Andor , was mainly used for kicking and was covered with skins. The locomotion, in which a shear position of the skis was advantageous, shows a clear similarity with the asymmetrical form of movement of today's skating.
Before the advent of skating in the 20th century, constant improvements in training methods and material as well as the machine tracing of the cross-country trails led to an increase in running speed and an increased use of double-stick pushing, with the upper arm strength becoming more important. Some races were won with skis that were prepared exclusively for gliding and did not allow a leg kick in the track. From the urge for even higher running speeds, new forms of movement developed.
Advance in competitive sports
From 1978, especially the stronger people's runners in icy and fast conditions used the half-skate step more and more frequently, in which one ski remains on the track, the other is sheared sideways. The imitators named this Finnstep or Siitonen step , after Pauli Siitonen , one of the first to use this technique. This also led to an innovation in the preparation of the trails - half groomed, half rolled. Later other forms of movement developed outside of the track. In the World Cup , the US runner Bill Koch first recognized the advantages of this technique. In 1981 he won the Engadine Marathon and in 1982 the overall ranking of the cross-country skiing world cup .
In the period that followed, there were heated discussions about regulations, and popular sports also called for a ban on the skating technique. The diagonal stride, the main form of movement in the classical style, threatened to disappear completely from competitive sport, and this would have weakened the possibility of the amateur athlete to identify with top-class sport. At the 1985 World Championships in Seefeld , an overly difficult trail was deliberately chosen, where no other mastery than classic technique seemed possible - the overwhelming majority of runners nevertheless used the new technique and thus ensured the final breakthrough.
For the 1985/86 season, the FIS introduced parallel competitions in classic and free technique, with half of the World Cup competitions being held in one of the two techniques. The 1987 World Championships in Oberstdorf and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary were the first major events with the juxtaposition of classic and skating competitions. In biathlon and Nordic combined , it was agreed that all competitions should be carried out in free technique.
Most of the top cross-country skiers still practice both techniques. The FIS also counteracted specialization by not awarding separate trophies for the individual techniques in the cross-country skiing World Cup, but rather the same number of races in classic and free technique are held in all competitions. In 1988, pursuit races were introduced, which are run first in the classic, then in the free technique. The skating race is recorded in the so-called chase start, that is, the start takes place according to the time intervals of the first race. This discipline has existed as a double pursuit or ski duathlon since 2003 . The competitions are no longer held on two consecutive days, but directly one after the other, whereby the change of equipment is also part of the competition.
Athletes in the biathlon and Nordic combined disciplines train almost exclusively the skating technique, they occasionally use the classic technique to train endurance and not the technique itself. In contrast, many recreational runners continue to mainly use the classic technique, some practice both techniques and few specialize in the skating technique. There are still fewer prepared trails for the skating technique than for the classic technique. The fears of stress damage to the joints expressed by some sports physicians during the advent of the skating technique have not come true .
The essential basic elements of the skating technique are the skating step and the double stick push. The double-deck push and the other basic elements such as downhill, braking and cornering techniques largely correspond to the classic style. By using the skating step, you can push off the gliding, moving ski; with the classic technique, the ski must stand for a brief moment during the take-off. This is the main reason why higher running speeds are achieved in skating compared to the classic technique.
The leg movement in skating corresponds to the basic form of the ice skating step . The imprint is made alternately by the ski gliding obliquely to the direction of movement, which in the final phase of the imprint - still gliding - is edged more and more clearly. The body's center of gravity performs a rhythmic pendulum movement perpendicular to the direction of movement, whereby the impression and glide phases merge into one another. The opening angle of the skis depends on the terrain, the speed and the type of movement. In the various movement techniques of skating, the use of sticks results in certain variations of the skating step, especially with regard to symmetry.
During the support phase of a ski, two distinctive force peaks and a force minimum in between occur just before half of the ground contact time. This minimum divides the support phase into two parts of approximately the same length, to which different functional meanings can be assigned. The first peak of force coincides with the end of the leg kick on the opposite side, which ends the brief double support phase, i.e. the period of time during which both skis are in the snow. Towards the end of this phase, the new gliding ski has absorbed the weight-shifting movement from the opposite side. The significantly higher maximum force in the second, somewhat longer section of the support phase reflects the leg kick. For an optimal leg kick, it is important to feel the maximum possible pressure on the edge of the ski, even under constantly changing snow and terrain conditions. It is also of crucial importance that the body is neither lying forwards nor backwards during the main phase of the leg kick so that the impact force is transmitted evenly over the entire ski.
In principle, the double-stick push corresponds to that of the classic style and is divided into three phases: It begins with a pulling phase after swinging the arms forward, when the sticks insert into the snow at a slightly acute angle. The upper body including the hips is then brought forward. Using their body weight, the runner pulls himself towards the sticks, the elbows are angled differently depending on the speed. The pushing phase begins shortly before the hands pass by the knees. The upper body is then in its lowest position. While upper arm, shoulder and back muscles can be used in the pull phase, only the arms work in the push phase. To lengthen the pushing phase, the hands can be opened towards the end while the stick is still guided with thumb and index finger. When the poles leave the snow, the swing phase begins, which lasts until the poles are used again.
In particular, the swing phase varies considerably when using the double-deck push in the various forms of skating. Most similar to the pure double stick push of the classic style is the use of poles in the arm swing technique , but there are also less maximum forces, since the leg work relieves the strain. Due to the high frequency of stick use, the average stick strength per cycle is higher with the one-stroke than with any other form of movement and therefore requires strong upper body muscles. The special feature of guide arm technology is that the force impulse is not the same on both sides, which in other cases corresponds to an optimal design, but is approximately 20 percent greater on the guide arm side than on the other side.
Depending on the achievable speed, which is mainly determined by the slope of the terrain and other external factors, five main forms of movement can be distinguished. In addition to derived special forms, there are cornering and braking techniques, which, however, do not differ significantly from classic techniques. The passive descent and the alpine swing are also nothing special in skating.
The naming of the five main techniques often leads to misunderstandings, not least because different variants have become established in German usage. One focuses on the existence of symmetry at right angles to the direction of travel and the relationship between leg repulsion and stick use in the forms of movement, while another focuses on the activity of the arms. The so-called five-speed model says nothing about the appearance of the form of movement, but is based solely on the speed range for which the respective technology is suitable. The following table provides an overview of the types of movement.
|gear||designation||symmetry||B / S||Other names|
|1||Diagonal skating||symmetrical||1/1||Salamander step, lady's step|
|2||Guide arm technology||asymmetrical||2/1||Asymmetrical 2: 1, mountain step|
|3||One-stroke||symmetrical||1/1||1: 1 technique, double dance|
|4th||Arm swing technique||conditionally symmetrical||2/1||Symmetrical 2: 1, pendulum step|
|5||Ice skating step
without using a stick
Diagonal skating is a pure ascent technique that is used on steep climbs. It is a symmetrical technique and the only main form of movement in which the sticks are not used at the same time, but individually. When you start running, it begins as a pass movement - using a stick with a simultaneous leg kick on the same side - but changes to a diagonal movement, then, as with the diagonal step of the classic technique, one arm comes forward at the same time as the opposite ski. The skis are presented in the shortest possible way, so there is no leg closure. The upper body turns on the sliding ski, but does not go with the stick. If the sliding phase is no longer possible on a steep incline, this form of movement corresponds to the bone step of the classic technique.
Diagonal skating is very seldom seen in competition. It is also only used occasionally by recreational runners, usually only when no more sliding phase is possible. The reason for this is that it is not trained enough compared to the other forms of movement and is therefore poorly performed.
Guide arm technology
The guide arm technique is suitable for climbs and in difficult terrain. This is the most asymmetrical of the main forms of movement, with a double stick push only every second leg kick. The leg movement is an asymmetrical skating step with a main push leg and main glide leg. The stick work does not correspond to the classic double stick thrust, the arm on the side of the main glide leg is the guide arm. The stick of the guide arm is placed relatively vertically close to the ski, the other much lower at an angle in front of the body. Both poles and the ski of the main sliding leg come into contact with the snow at the same time. The body makes a relatively strong pendulum movement across the direction of movement, whereby the position on the side of the main abutment bone is somewhat upright, but on the other side it is quite deep, you can, so to speak, fall onto the main glide leg. The arm and body movement appears to be related to movement with paddling .
Because of its versatility, this technique is the most important in skating, especially in recreational sports. This form of movement is also suitable for cross-sloping sections of the trail, the guide arm is on the mountain side. Regardless of the type of terrain, it is advantageous to change sides from time to time, as the type and intensity of the muscle load on both sides differ significantly. To change sides, two skating steps can be performed one after the other without using a stick. Alternatively, a short, indicated stick use can initiate the change, which is immediately followed in the next step by the next stick use with a changed guide arm.
No other form of movement in skating shows so many individual variations. For example, the sticks are often not set at the same time, but the stick on the guide arm side follows a little later. There is also the jumped form, which requires a high level of endurance and is therefore practically only used in competitions. The main push-off leg is bent more strongly and the already short gliding phase on this side is deliberately broken off. From the leg flexion, an expansive jump is performed in the direction of the main gliding leg, the use of poles begins during the flight phase.
The completely symmetrical one-stroke movement is a very powerful form of movement that also requires great coordination skills . With every step there is also a supportive double-deck push. This technique is mainly used for light climbs, for acceleration and as a sprint form in the target area of competition courses. The sticks are used a little before the leg kick, the sticks are used roughly parallel to the ski, which is still gliding, the upper body is bent in the direction of the gliding ski. The stick work is done before the leg kick is completed with the leg extended. After taking off the push-off ski, the upper body straightens up, the entire weight is shifted onto the gliding ski on the opposite side until the body's center of gravity is above the gliding ski. Since the double-deck thrust has to be carried out at high frequency, the arms cannot be swung forward as actively as with the arm swing technique.
In addition to high strength endurance , this technique also requires a very secure balance when gliding on a ski, which is particularly difficult on poor cross-country trails. This is why this form of movement is a little rarer in recreational sports. But it is also the most unnecessary main form of movement, as there are only a few sections of the cross-country ski trail where the guide arm or arm swing technique is not a suitable alternative. On the other hand, this technique is also said to have the greatest aesthetics of movement.
Arm swing technique
The arm swing technique is one of the symmetrical forms of movement, although it is obviously not completely symmetrical, as the double-stick thrust only takes place with every second step, i.e. only on one side as with the guide arm technique. Nevertheless, compared to the guide arm technique, the arm swing technique has a significantly greater symmetry, especially when it comes to footwork and the track pattern. The arm swing technique is mainly used in gently sloping terrain or used to maintain a high speed on the flat. The sequence of movements is similar to the one-stroke cycle, as in this case the double-pole thrust is in the direction of the gliding ski. The leg kick starts after the use of the stick, which is a significant difference to the guide arm technique and enables you to maintain an accelerating force over a longer period of time. Only with good cross-country skiing conditions or sufficient ability is it possible to almost complete the double-stick push on the gliding ski before the leg kick begins. The weight is shifted completely to the other ski. In contrast to the one-stroke cycle, the body's center of gravity is lowered when swinging the arms not only during the double-deck push, but also mirror-inverted when swinging the arms forward, which is initiated on the opposite side a little before the leg kick. This active pulling out of the arms also contributes to the propulsion.
Since this technique is not completely symmetrical either, changing sides from time to time is advantageous. As with the guide arm technology, this change is possible in two consecutive steps without using a stick or by double stick pushes following one another. With the latter variant, several double-decker drawers can follow one another - the page change takes place in connection with a brief change to the one-stroke cycle. In cross-sloping sections of the cross-country ski trail, it is advantageous to carry out the double-pole push on the downhill ski, but the choice of side that is adapted to the terrain is not as important as with the guide arm technique.
Ice skating step without using a stick
The largest gear of the five-gear model is sometimes shortened and, somewhat misleadingly, simply referred to as the skating step . This form of movement is used when acceleration through a double-decker push is no longer economically possible due to excessive speed. The sticks can be clamped under the arms or pressed horizontally against the body. The opening angle is very small, the glide phases are as long as possible. To reduce the air resistance , a low position can be taken. At even higher speeds, there is no longer a leg kick and the body position corresponds to the downhill squat .
With this form of movement, even steeper slopes can be supported in an accelerating manner. The pure ice-skating step is also used for target sprints or when accelerating from the start. In particular, then the arms and the sticks drawn on the forearm are actively swung along, as in speed skating . However, this requires a lot of free space in order not to endanger other cross-country trail users or competitors. The ice skating step can also be used to recover the arm muscles even at lower speeds without using a stick. This is done for example in biathlon before shooting.
More for historical reasons there is the Siitonen step as another technique of skating, as this played an essential role in the transition from the classic to the skating style. This is a half-skating step in which one ski glides in the track of the trail while the other is sheared sideways. The kick of the sheared and edged ski is supported by a double-stick push. Since the preparation of separate cross-country trails for the two styles, the Siitonen step has mainly been used as a learning aid by runners who want to switch from classic to free technique.
The downhill and braking techniques did not differ from those of the classic technique. Compared to this, the more stable fixation by shoe and binding is advantageous and facilitates execution, for example when plowing .
With the curve techniques, a distinction is made between passive and active bow kicking. Passive bow kicking, also known as kicking, corresponds to the classic style: The ski on the outside of the curve is only loaded briefly in order to be able to lift the relieved inner ski at the front and turn it inwards. Then the relieved outer ski is pulled up and adjusted. While passive bow kicking takes place without the use of poles, the active one is supported with a dynamic double-stick push on the inside ski. A strong push is required from the ski on the outside of the curve. In comparison to the passive version, active arching is used at lower speed or larger curve radii and enables the speed to be maintained or even increased in curves.
Equipment and ski preparation
The equipment for practicing the skating technique corresponds only partially to that of the classic style. Different skis, bindings and mostly other shoes are almost always used. The sticks are basically the same, except that they should be an average of 10 centimeters longer when skating. When it comes to other cross-country clothing, there are no notable differences between the two styles.
In contrast to skis for the classic technique, skating skis are completely designed for gliding, so there is no stick zone in the middle of the ski. Another important aspect of skating skis is the lateral stability and torsional strength , which ensures that the repulsion force is distributed as evenly as possible to the ground. Like the classic ski, the skating ski has a curvature and bias. This is even stronger, even when a ski is loaded with the entire body weight, the middle of the skating ski should not be fully pushed through. The aim of this construction is to distribute the pressure over the entire ski surface as evenly as possible, as this ensures the best gliding properties. Due to the pre-tensioning and the elastic deformation of the ski, the energy invested in the push-off can then be partially converted into propulsive energy.
As with alpine skiing , the ski width is not the same for the entire ski. The intention is not to increase the ability of the ski to turn, but to support an even impression over the entire ski and to achieve good gliding properties. After clear waistlines were common in the past, manufacturers have returned to a more even width. The skis tend to be narrower at the front than at the back. The average ski width is around 43 millimeters, with the ski width generally varying less than four millimeters. Weight plays a more important role with skating skis than with classic technology, as the ski is lifted off the snow for a not inconsiderable part of the time. Since weight reduction cannot be done at the expense of stability, techniques and experience from aircraft construction were used to optimize the ski weight . There are skis that weigh less than a kilogram.
There are models with different lengths and degrees of hardness ( stiffness ) to help you choose the right ski . When determining these individual parameters, body weight and the intended intensity of the exercise of the sport play the main role, then body size. Compared to the classic technique, shorter skis are used, the maximum ski length is only a little over 1.90 meters. Longer skis would have better gliding properties, but would be a hindrance in narrow passages and especially on climbs, also because the ends of the skis would cross too far at a large shear angle.
There are also combination models that can be used for the classic and skating technique. When using the classic technique, a climbing wax is applied in the middle of the ski, while skating the ski is prepared for gliding throughout. However, such so-called all-round skis are less common.
Bindings and shoes
There are two binding systems that practically divide the world market: NNN (New Nordic Norm) from Rottefella and SNS ( Salomon Nordic System). These are not compatible , the type of binding must be tailored to the boot, but not to the ski. Both systems have special skating bindings, where the connection with the ski is more stable compared to the classic technique. The shoe is attached under the ball of the foot and not just at the tip of the shoe, as is usually the case with the classic style. A rubber bolt or spring makes it easier to pull the ski towards the sole of the foot and prevents the ski from falling down in front. There are bindings in which this spring force is adjustable and which are therefore suitable for both techniques, since a stronger force is advantageous in skating.
A skating shoe is cut higher than a model for classic technique. The sole is relatively hard and therefore torsion-resistant. The axis of movement supports the activity of the ankle joint in line with the movement sequence when skating. There are also more and more shoe models that are suitable for both styles. This also applies to competitive sports, since since 2003 both techniques have been run one after the other in a double pursuit.
The construction of the stick corresponds to the classic technique, it is a hollow tube with a handle and loop at the top and a tip and a stick plate at the bottom. The optimal stick should be as light as possible and break-proof, which are contradicting requirements in terms of manufacturing technology, especially with very long sticks. Carbon or aluminum is usually used as the pipe material . There are also cross-country poles with adjustable length.
As a rule, slightly longer poles are used in skating than in the classic style, according to the rule of thumb the optimal length is between 85 and 90 percent of the body size. If you are more capable, longer sticks can be an advantage. Shorter sticks are cheaper for sprint routes or steep climbs.
When the skating technique emerged at the end of the 1980s, extremely long poles were preferred, some of which were even longer than the body size, so that they could support them even at high speeds. Investigations carried out in 1993 showed that the optimal pole length is very individual and depends on technical and physical conditions. Most of the runners examined were recommended to use shorter sticks than before.
With the advent of the skating technique, there was confidence that the preparation of the skis would be easier, since "only" the gliding ability had to be optimized. In the field of competitive sports, this hope has not been fulfilled, as good gliding ability is even more important in skating than in the classic technique, and the optimization efforts in this area have therefore assumed unexpected dimensions.
When optimizing the lubricity, a distinction is made between three main factors: the cut, the structure and the waxing. The cut and structure primarily determine how the melt water created by the pressure of sliding under the ski is displaced and guided along under the ski. It is particularly important to avoid suction effects. The structure represents a refinement of the cut. A commercially purchased ski already has a cut, usually a universal one, but there are also skis that are specially prepared for cold or warmer conditions. The cut is cut into the ski with a special whetstone and diamond and can only be replaced by another cut. The structure is pressed into the ground surface. A linear, coarse structure is suitable for wet snow, fine cross structures are more suitable for dry conditions with crystalline snow . There are handy devices for applying the structure, but their use is almost exclusively limited to racing. The structure disappears like the wax after repeated use.
Waxing is considered to be about as important as the cut and structure. When it comes to waxing, a distinction is made between liquid and hot waxes. Liquid waxes are the easiest to use, they are simply applied and polished, which is also possible on the trail. Hot waxes are applied with the help of a precisely temperature-controlled iron . Paraffin waxes , which are available for different temperature ranges, are mainly used as hot waxes in the field of leisure sports . The fluorine waxes are of a somewhat higher quality and are used in the same way as paraffin waxes. In the field of competitive sports, there are other processes that are partially combined, for example pure fluorine wax, wax based on nanotechnology and special powders or sprays.
Recent developments and research
Several attempts have been made to adapt the concept of the folding ice skate , which revolutionized speed skating in the mid-1990s, to the skating technique in cross-country skiing. The effect was not as sweeping as with speed skating, since the binding in skating allows quite long contact with the ground with the ski lying flat when taking the imprint. Nevertheless, tests have shown that a construction based on the folding ice skate can bring advantages, at least on short sprinting distances, and that the calf muscles are less stressed. Due to the torsion-resistant construction, the shoe can be cut lower; this enables increased freedom of movement of the ankle. In the Sprint World Cup 2006/2007 , such a system was first used.
In the sprint races there are also innovations in the forms of movement. Firstly, the shape of the cracked Eintakters, on the other hand the transfer of the from the inline speed skating derived double push . The ski is not placed flat, as is normally the case when the gliding phase is initiated, but rather on the outer edge and also turned slightly inwards to enable a further accelerating repulsion pulse. Compared to inline skating, it is disadvantageous that the direction of the ski gliding in the snow cannot be continuously rotated outwards into the position of the normal inner-edged impression, but this change of direction has to be made with one jump. In attempts over a short sprint distance, the runners were on average around 3 percent faster when using the double push in the one-stroke compared to the conventional technique. The double push requires higher muscle activity and the applicability of this innovation is probably limited to start and finish sprints or tactical intermediate sprints in sprint races due to the high technical requirements.
In the international ski racing sport, a stronger focus on the training quality can be observed in the training design of the successful nations, since the scope of the load has reached a level at which an increase no longer causes any effective adjustment symptoms. Based on quantitative and qualitative biomechanical analyzes of the last few years, specific methods and devices are developed in order to be able , for example, to train speed strength and endurance specifically for the forms of movement of the skating technique. From today's point of view, a further development of the existing running techniques and the material are the reserves for further increasing performance. For example, B. Sandbakk et al. (2014) found that the cornering speed and technique when going downhill depends primarily on the speed and the maximum strength of the legs, properties that are not necessarily conducive to maximum endurance.
In order to be able to train technique, coordination and fitness as specifically as possible in the summer, competitive athletes in particular use roller skates in summer or practice related types of Nordic inline skating .
All forms of movement of the skating technique can be implemented on roller skis and come very close to cross-country skiing. A major difference arises from the fact that the rolling friction on roller skis is only about a quarter of the sliding friction on skis, which is why the speeds on roller skis are significantly higher than on skis. On roller skis, this leads to an extension of the overall cycle time and also to other time components of the partial cycles, which results in a changed kinesthetic .
When using poles, especially on asphalt, it is often not possible to maintain the thrust for as long as it is in snow as the puncture angle becomes more acute, because the poles slip away. The changed conditions also show clear differences in the leg push-off: With roller skis there is a significantly higher load on the outer edge, and the two-pound force profile during the push-off phase is much less pronounced , especially on the ball of the foot, than when using skis.
Target group and learning process
The practice of the skating technique is only possible away from prepared trails under special conditions - for example on a hard, frozen blanket of snow or on a frozen lake with a light layer of snow. When it comes to skating, the sporting aspect is usually more in the foreground than when running in the classic technique and especially compared to its modern wellness- oriented variety, Nordic cruising .
The slowest possible execution of skating requires an increased energy supply compared to the classic style. This is all the more true in the early learning phase of the skating technique, as it requires certain technical skills to climb steep climbs at a slow pace without losing your rhythm. One focus of the learning process is training the sense of balance for gliding on a ski. Initially, there is often no complete weight shift on the sliding ski and the skier's center of gravity is always almost centrally between the two skis. Studies have shown that even in top runners, the head initiates lateral movement when shifting weight. This can be used in terms of training methods, as the runner can consciously check whether the direction of view is oriented towards the tip of the ski after shifting weight. Another hurdle when learning the skating technique is the only apparent similarity between the guide arm and arm swing technique, as both forms of movement involve a double-stick push with every second step. This runs the risk of not clearly separating these techniques from one another.
- Stefan Lindinger: Biomechanical analyzes of skating techniques in cross-country skiing . Meyer & Meyer Verlag, Aachen 2006, ISBN 3-89899-105-9 .
- Kuno Hottenrott, Veit Urban: The big book about cross-country skiing . Meyer & Meyer Verlag, Aachen 2004. ISBN 3-89124-992-6 .
- Egon Theiner, Chris Karl: Cross-country skiing: history, culture, practice . Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 3-89533-371-9 .
- German Ski Association (DSV, publisher): Official DSV curriculum for cross-country skiing: technology, teaching, practice . Pietsch Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-6135-0712-9 .
- Ulricht Wenger, Franz Wöllzenmüller: Cross-country skiing: classic technique and skating . sportinform Verlag, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-8254-0423-4 .
- DSV expert tips: diagonal skating , half-skating step , skating 2-1 on the mountain , skating 2-1 with active arm swing , skating step (YouTube videos)
- ↑ Rüdiger Abele: A fresh track ahead . In: FAZ , March 8, 2005
- ↑ a b Mike Wilde: Natural (Fort) Moving , page 295, Department of Sports Science at the University of Hamburg , 2002
- ↑ a b c d DVS: Ski curriculum, vol. 2, cross-country skiing . Pages 124–129, see literature
- ↑ a b c Wenger, Wöllzenmüller: Cross-country skiing . Pages 9–15, see literature
- ^ Hottenrott, Urban: The big book of cross-country skiing . Pages 14–17, see literature
- ^ A b Hottenrott, Urban: The big book of cross-country skiing . Pages 31–38, see literature
- ^ Theiner, Karl: Cross-country skiing: history, culture, practice . Pages 53–56, see literature
- ↑ a b c d e DVS: Ski curriculum, vol. 2, cross-country skiing . Pages 74–91, see literature
- ↑ FIS : International Ski Competition Rules ( Memento of the original from February 15, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF file; 1.33 MB). 2008
- ↑ a b c d e f Hottenrott, Urban: The big book of cross-country skiing . Pages 187-239, see literature
- ^ A b c S. Lindinger: Biomechanical analyzes of skating techniques in cross-country skiing . Pages 256–288, see literature
- ^ Theiner, Karl: Cross-country skiing: history, culture, practice . Page 114f, see literature
- ^ G. Millet, M. Hoffmann, R. Candau, P. Clifford: Poling forces during roller skiing: Effect of technique and speed . In: Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercies . 30 (11): 1645-1653,1998
- ↑ Ansgar Schwiritz: Movement technique and muscular coordination in cross-country skiing . Sport and Book Strauss, Edition Sport, Cologne 1994, ISBN 3-89001-038-5
- ^ S. Lindinger: Biomechanical analyzes of skating techniques in cross-country skiing . Pages 106–118, see literature
- ↑ In English it is no better, see: Ken Roberts, Sharon Marsh Roberts: What are the main skating techniques and names?
- ↑ Designations according to S. Lindinger: Biomechanical analyzes of skating techniques in cross-country skiing . These are based on: P. Scherer: Skating text and learning book . Munich 1998
- ↑ Ratio of leg kick to stick use
- ↑ a b c d e f g Wenger, Wöllzenmüller: Cross-country skiing . Pages 124–144, see literature
- ^ A b S. Lindinger: Biomechanical analyzes of skating techniques in cross-country skiing . Pages 305-312, see literature
- ^ A b S. Lindinger: Biomechanical analyzes of skating techniques in cross-country skiing . Pages 289–305, see literature
- ^ DVS: Ski curriculum, vol. 2, cross-country skiing . Pages 91-98, see literature
- ↑ a b c d e f g h Hottenrott, Urban: The big book of cross-country skiing . Pages 39–52, see literature
- ↑ Gerald A. Smith: Biomechanics of Cross Country Skiing . In: Heikki Rusko: Cross country skiing . ISBN 0-632-05571-5 , Blackwell Science, 2003
- ↑ a b www.ernordic.com: Ski Data, SRG Test Summary - Skating Skis . Retrieved March 10, 2009
- ↑ European Commission, Competition: Case No COMP / M.3765 - Amer / Salomon (English; PDF file; 226 kB)
- ↑ Wenger, Wöllzenmüller: Cross-country skiing . Pages 16–29, see literature
- ↑ Ansgar Schwiritz: The use of poles in cross-country skiing. Biomechanical investigations for the optimal stick length . In: A. Neumayer, K. Grüzenmacher (Hrsg.): Development tendencies in cross-country skiing . Federal Institute for Sport Science, Volume 7, page 65, Cologne 1993
- ↑ Wenger, Wöllzenmüller: Cross-country skiing . Pages 30–67, see literature
- ^ A b Marius Stahlberger: Structured growth . In: FIT for LIFE ., December 2007 ( online ( memento of the original from December 24, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; PDF file; 1.26 MB)
- ↑ Thomas Stöggl, Stefan Lindinger: Double-Push Skating and Klap Skate in Cross Country Skiing . ( Memento of the original from June 22, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. April 2007
- ↑ FINN sports: The Cross Country Clapsystem ( Memento of the original from April 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Retrieved March 12, 2009
- ^ A b S. Lindinger: Biomechanical analyzes of skating techniques in cross-country skiing . Pages 331–334, see literature
- ↑ Thomas Stöggl, Erich Müller, Stefan Lindinger: Biomechanical comparison of the double-push technique and the conventional skate skiing technique in cross-country sprint skiing . In: Journal of Sports Sciences . September 2008, 26 (11): 1225-1233 ( abstract )
- ↑ Sandbakk, Ø., Sandbakk, SB, Supej, M., Holmberg, Hans-Christer (2014). The velocity and energy profiles of elite cross-country skiers executing downhill turns with different radii. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance , 9 (1), 41-47.
- ↑ Arnd Krüger : (2014). How does block periodization work? Learning Curves and Super Compensation: Special Features of Block Periodization. Fd Snow 32 (2), 22-33.
- ^ Stephan Babiel: Field study on biomechanical influencing variables in selected cross-country skiing techniques . Pages 108–114, Ruhr University Bochum, Faculty of Sports Science, Bochum 2002
- ↑ Franz Wöllzenmüller, Ulrich Wenger: Right Nordic Ski: Cruising, cross country skiing, skating . Page 74, BLV Verlag, Munich 2005
- ^ S. Lindinger: Biomechanical analyzes of skating techniques in cross-country skiing . Pages 61–105, see literature