Purple calamine pansy

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Purple calamine pansy
Viola guestphalica

Viola guestphalica

Eurosiden I
Order : Malpighiales (Malpighiales)
Family : Violet family (Violaceae)
Genre : Violets ( viola )
Type : Purple calamine pansy
Scientific name
Viola guestphalica
Bleikuhlen nature reserve and Waschebachtal
Heavy metal lawn in the nature reserve Bleikuhlen and Waschebachtal
Mowing work by the Association for Nature and Bird Protection in the Hochsauerlandkreis with two single-axle mowers and a single-axle swather on a meadow with occurrences of the Westphalian Galmeiveilchens in the NSG underclothesbach / Tieberg

The violet calamine pansy ( Viola guestphalica ), also blue or Westphalian calamine or more generally zinc violet , is an extremely rare species of the violet genus ( Viola ) in the violet family (Violaceae). It got its botanical name from the location of the plant in Westphalia (= guestphalica ). Like the yellow gallbladder ( Viola calaminaria ) it is the main species and the namesake of a form of the gallbladder flora ( Violetum guestphalicae ).


In the 10 to 15 centimeter high violet calamine pansy, all petals are uniformly blue-violet. A dark, line-shaped veining can be seen towards the center of the flower. The flowering period extends from May to October. The occurrence was first mentioned in 1854 by the botanist Alexander Braun .

The number of chromosomes is 2n = 52.


The purple calamine pansy occurs worldwide only in one place of growth in the border area of ​​the Paderborn, Höxter and Hochsauerland districts, so it is endemic to Westphalia . The deposit is located in the FFH area "Bleikuhlen und Waschebachtal" (DE-4419-304), with a size of 71 ha. One of the main protection goals of the area is, in addition to the preservation of the existing heavy metal lawns, the networking and restoration of heavy metal lawns in suitable locations in the protected area. The FFH area is made up of parts of three nature conservation areas (NSG). This concerns the Bleikuhlen and Brilleebachtal nature reserve designated by the Detmold district government in 2002 in the urban areas of Lichtenau ( Paderborn district ) and Warburg ( Höxter district ), as well as the two natural reserves in the area of Laundry Bach / Tieberg and Bleikuhle in the Marsberg urban area, which were designated by the Hochsauerland district in 2008 ( Hochsauerlandkreis). The species grows there in open, extremely low-nitrogen grassland naturally contaminated with heavy metals on dry and semi-dry grassland in partially shaded to sunny places ( heavy metal grass ). Furthermore, it grows below the lead hollows in a meadow in the Waschebach valley contaminated with heavy metals. In the NSG Waschebachtal / Tieberg, the two meadows with occurrences of the violet calamine pansy are mowed annually by the Association for Nature and Bird Protection in the Hochsauerlandkreis in order to prevent encroachment or reforestation and thus a disappearance of the species.


Until 1986, this species was considered a subspecies or variety of the yellow calamine particle ( Viola calaminaria ). Chromosome counts then showed that the two species are not directly related to each other and each enjoy species rank.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp.  674 .
  2. The Westphalian Galmei violet (Viola guestphalica) - only available from Blankenrode  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Burkhard Beinlich & Walter Köble (2007) in: Contributions to natural history between Egge and Weser (19) pp. 80–82@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de  


  • A. Braun: Mr. Braun read about the occurrence of zinc in the plant kingdom . Report on the announcement of suitable negotiations by the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin, 1854, 19: 12–15.
  • Richard Götte: Flora in the eastern Sauerland , Association for nature and bird protection in the Hochsauerlandkreis 2007, ISBN = 978-3-00-021099-0, p. 152.
  • Hochsauerlandkreis - Lower Landscape Authority: Marsberg landscape plan . Meschede 2008, pp. 46-47, 54, 185-186.

Web links

Commons : Westfälisches Galmeiveilchen ( Viola guestphalica )  - album with pictures, videos and audio files