from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
History of Korea-375.png
Largest expansion of Baekje
around 375 AD.
Korean alphabet : 백제
Hanja : 百 濟
Revised Romanization : Baekje
McCune-Reischauer : Paekche
History of Korea
to the 10th Century
Prehistoric Korea
Proto-three realms
Time of the Three Kingdoms
Northern and Southern states
Later three realms

Baekje ( 백제 , 百 濟 ) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean peninsula that, according to legend, was founded in 18  BC. Chr. Was established, proven at the latest 234  n. Chr. Under King Goi ( 고이 (234-286) existed) as a kingdom and 660 n. Chr. By the Kingdom of Silla ( 신라 ), in an alliance with the Chinese Tang Dynasty , was destroyed.

The kingdom of Baekje ruled the Korean peninsula for over six centuries , together with the kingdom of Silla and Goguryeo ( 고구려 ), founded in the east in the 4th century AD , which had already emerged in the north in the 1st century AD. The time in which the three kingdoms existed is historically referred to as the time of the three kingdoms (Samguk-sidae ( 삼국 시대 )), whereby a chronological classification of the beginning is rather fictitious, since the kingdoms came into being at different times. At the height of its power, the Baekje Kingdom controlled a large part of the western Korean peninsula in the 4th and 5th centuries and reached up to the Pyongyang ( 평양 ) region in the north .


According to the Sanguozhi (Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms) written by the Chinese historian Chen Shou in 297, Baekje ( 百 濟 國 ) was originally a member of Mahan , a loose "confederation" that later became the Joseon provinces of Gyeonggi do , Chungcheong-do and Jeolla-do in the southwest of the Korean peninsula and to which 54 Han tribes of the region had allied.


In the Samguk Sagi ( 삼국사기 ), a Korean script written in 1145, it is described that the Baekje was born in 18 BC. BC by King Onjo ( 온조 ) was founded. Onjo was the leader of a group of settlers from Goguryeo who settled in the area around what is now Seoul ( 서울 ). Baekje saw itself as the successor state to Buyeo ( 부여 ), which was created after the fall of Go-Joseon ( 고조선 ) in Manchuria .

The Samguk Yusa ( 삼국유사 ) represents King Onjo as the son of the founder of Goguryeo, King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo ( 동명 ), also called Jumong ( 주몽 ) or Chumo ( 추모 ). As Yuri ( 유리 ), Dongmyeong's son from his first marriage, arrived in Goguryeo and was declared crown prince, Biryu ( 비류 ) and Onjo, sons of Dongmyeong and his new wife, decided to emigrate south with ten vassals . The group split up and a part under the leader Onjo settled in Wiryeseong ( 위례성 ) in today's Hanam ( 하남 ). She called her country Sipje ( 십제 ) ( German: ten vassals). Biryu led the remaining settlers against the advice of the vassals in the area around today's Incheon ( 인천 ), whose landscape was characterized by salty sea water and swamps. The inhospitable area made the situation of Biryu and his followers drastically worse, and shame at his wrong decision ultimately drove Biryu to suicide. The remaining settlers left the place and went to Wiryeseong, where King Onjo welcomed them and renamed his empire Baekje (Hundred Vassals).

Other assumptions

Deviating from the assumption that Onjo founded Baekje, other historians assume that his stepbrother Biryu was the actual founder of Baekje, but was unable to ascend the throne due to his death five months later. Accordingly, both stepbrothers of King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo were sent south to defend the plain of the Imjin River ( 임진강 ). There they founded Baekje and a little later the capital Michuhol ( 미추홀 ).

5 v. In BC (14th year of Onjo's reign), King Onjo moved the capital to Wiryeseong in Hanam, which is in today's Gyosan-dong ( 교산동 ) district of Hanam-si ( 하남시 ), in the Gyeonggi-do ( 경기도 ) province .

Archaeological research today supports the assumption that Baekje, as a centrally organized kingdom, could not have existed before the late 3rd century AD.

Hanseong period (18 BC to 475 AD)

Onjo knew how to expand his sphere of influence and so the borders reached from Baekje 9 AD to the Yeseong River in the north (70 km northwest of Seoul in North Korea), the city of Chuncheon in the east and Jiksan in the south (90 km south of Seoul away). Baekje already covered half of the area of Mahan at that time .

Baekje around 300 AD

It is not certain when Baekje can be considered a kingdom. What is certain, however, is that in 246 the Chinese commanders Lelang and Daifang launched extensive attacks against Baekje in order to curb Baekje's growing influence in the region around the Han River. At that time, King Goi (ruled 234–286) ruled the country. It is believed that he, also known as King Gui, was the founder of the Baekje Kingdom.

In any case, Goi reorganized and restructured the seed, appointed six ministers ( jwapyeong ( 좝영 )) to govern the state, defined 16 different degrees of official ranks with a strict hierarchy and stratification, and imposed severe penalties for corrupt officials. But it itself held its audiences in a splendid manner. The ministers of his state were responsible for the areas, secretary of the king, state finances, ceremonies, rituals and education, security of the palace and the capital, punitive measures and the management of the military.

King Geunchogo (346–375) built on the state structured by Goi and changed Baekje into an extremely centralized and aristocratic state. Under his reign, Baekje conquered the rest of the territory of the tribal states of Mahan in AD 369, repulsed an attack on Goguryeo, who advanced in AD 369 with 20,000 soldiers, and captured Pyongyang in AD 371. King Gugukwon was killed by Goguryeo. At that time, Baekje was considered the most powerful kingdom on the Korean peninsula and Hanseong , located a little southeast of today's city center of Seoul on the Han River, was Baekje's first capital until AD 475. In view of the up-and-coming Silla, there was an intensive exchange of embassies between the Yamato Court (Wa / Japan ) and Baekje (Japanese: Kudara ) for the first time in the 360s and 370s .

Baekje took over cultural and technological achievements from China, including the Buddhist religion. When the Indian monk Marananda was sent from the Chinese southern Jin state to the royal court of Baekje, he adopted the faith and introduced Buddhism as the state religion in AD 384.

At the end of the 4th century, Baekje was increasingly confronted with attacks from the north by the kingdom of Goguryeo. Beginning with King Gwanggaeto ( 광개토 ) and continued by King Jangsu ( 장수 ), they moved the borders further south to the disadvantage of Baekje, recaptured Pyongyang and finally Baekje's capital Hanseong in AD 475. Baekjes King Gaero (r. 454–475) ( 개로 ) was captured and killed as well as numerous members of the royal family. Even an alliance with the Silla Kingdom, which Baekje had already concluded in 433 AD, could not prevent Goguryeo from expanding southwards.

Ungjin period (AD 475 to 538)

After the death of King Gaero and the fall of the capital Hanseong, King Munju (r. 475–477) ( 초고 ) took power and moved the seat of government to Ungjin ( 웅진 ), today's Gongju ( 공주시 ). The mountainous area promised more protection from the attackers from the north, but Ungjin was unsuitable for the development of a capital because it was inaccessible. That is why the Ungjin period was short-lived.

Sabi period (538 to 660 AD)

In the year 538 AD, King Seong moved the capital to Sabi ( 사비 ), today's Buyeo . Sabi quickly developed into a center for art and culture, from which impulses went beyond the imperial borders. Significant at that time was u. a. Sabi's pottery and temple building. Today it is believed that Sabi's religious and cultural influence reached as far as Japan, where Baekje (Japanese: Kudara)

King Seong reformed the administration and strengthened his country's relationship and trade with the southern dynasties of China. Sabi's location on the navigable Geumgang River was ideal for this. King Seong led his country to old strength and, still allied with Silla, attacked Goguryeo in 551 AD in order to recapture old areas. But Silla broke the alliance and made Baekje an enemy. After a failed campaign against Silla, King Seong was killed. Thereupon Baekje allied itself in 562 AD with the kingdom of Goguryeo against Silla. In response, Silla made a pact with the Tang Dynasty and attacked Baekje in AD 641. After 19 years of war and unsuccessful leadership by King Uija (ruled from 641 to 660), Baekje was defeated and collapsed in 660 AD.

General Gwisil Boksin led the movement to restore Baekje as a state and proclaimed Uija's son Buyeo Pung , who had lived at the Yamato court (Japan) since 643, as the new King Pungjang. From the fortress Juryu ( 주류성 / 周 留 城 ), Boksin fought with the remains of the Baekjes army and Japanese expedition troops from 661 against the troops of Sillas and Tangs, although in 663 there was a rift between Boksin and Pungjang. The Battle of Baekgang ended in a devastating defeat and the kingdom of Baekje was finally history. The Baekjes royal family became part of the Japanese upper class. So Pung's brother Seon'gwang (Japanese: Zenkō) founded the Kudara no Konikishi clan ( Japanese 百 済 王 , 'King of Kudara [= Baekje]' ) in Japan . The Japanese imperial family on the mother's side can also be traced back to King Muryeong of Baekje via the Tennō Kammu .

See also


  • Ki-baik Lee: A New History of Korea . Harvard University Press , Seoul 1984, ISBN 0-674-61576-X , Chapter 3. Aristocratic Societies Under Monarchical Rule - 1. The Development of the Three Kingdoms , pp. 36-44 (English).
  • Carter J. Eckert, Ki-baik Lee, Young Ick Lew, Michael Robinson, Edward W. Wagner: Korea Old and New: A History . Harvard University Press , Cambridge, Massachusetts 1990, ISBN 0-9627713-0-9 , Chapter 3 - Aristocratic Societies Under Monarchical Rule , pp. 24-41 (English).
  • Hiyoul Kim: Korean History. Introduction to Korean history from prehistory to modern times . Ed .: Heinrich P. Kelz (=  languages ​​and language learning . Volume 204 ). Asgard-verlag, St. Augustin 2004, ISBN 3-537-82040-2 (Language Learning Center of the University of Bonn).
  • Hyun-hee Lee, Sung-soo Park, Nae-hyun Yoon: New History of Korea . Ed .: The Academy of Korean Studies (=  Korean Studies Series . Volume 30 ). Jimoondang, Paju-si 2005, ISBN 89-88095-85-5 , Chapter 6. Expansion of Early Baekje , pp. 143-150 (English).
  • Marion Eggert, Jörg Plassen: Small history of Korea . Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52841-4 .
  • Harold Hakwon Sunoo: A History of Korea - Ancient Time to 1945 . Xlibris Corporation , 2006, ISBN 1-4257-0948-6 (English).
  • Michael J. Seth : A Concise History Korea. From the Neolithic Period through the Nineteenth Century . Rowman & Littlefield Publishers , Oxford 2006, ISBN 0-7425-4005-7 (English).
  • Jonathan W. Best : A History of the Early Korean Kingdom of Paekche, together with an annotated translation of The Paekche Annals of the Samguk sagi . Harvard University Press , Cambridge, Massachusetts 2007, ISBN 0-674-01957-1 (English).
  • Mark E. Byington : Early Korea . The Samhan Period in Korean History . tape 2 . Korea Institute, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts 2009, ISBN 978-0-9795800-3-1 (English).

Web links

Commons : Baekje  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Hiyoul Kim: Korean History . 2004, p. 25 .
  2. Hiyoul Kim: Korean History . 2004, p. 25th f .
  3. ^ Lee, Park, Yoon: New History of Korea . 2005, p. 136 .
  4. ^ Seth: A Concise History Korea . 2006, p. 22 .
  5. a b c Foundation and Expansion of Baekje . Baekje Historic Areas Conservation and Management Foundation , accessed November 17, 2015 .
  6. a b Hiyoul Kim: Korean History . 2004, p. 31 .
  7. ^ A b Regional Relic Heritage - Gyosan-dong Building relics (Historic Site) - (Regional Relic Heritage 5) . Hanam City , accessed November 17, 2015 .
  8. a b Lee, Park, Yoon: New History of Korea . 2005, p. 143 .
  9. a b Lee, Park, Yoon: New History of Korea . 2005, p. 144 .
  10. ^ Byington : Early Korea . tape  2 , 2009, p. 9 .
  11. ^ A b Eckert, Lee, ...: Korea Old and New: A History . 1990, p. 25 .
  12. Ki-baik Lee: A New History of Korea . 1984, p. 37 .
  13. a b Lee, Park, Yoon: New History of Korea . 2005, p. 145 .
  14. ^ Lee, Park, Yoon: New History of Korea . 2005, p. 150 .
  15. ^ Lee, Park, Yoon: New History of Korea . 2005, p. 146 .
  16. ^ John Whitney Hall : The Cambridge History of Japan . Vol. 1 . Cambridge University Press , 1988, ISBN 978-0-521-22352-2 , pp.  121–123 ( limited preview in Google Book search). Japanese sources such as Nihonshoki , Fascicle 26, mistakenly place these events two 60-year cycles earlier.
  17. ^ Seth: A Concise History Korea . 2006, p. 33 .
  18. ^ Seth: A Concise History Korea . 2006, p. 33 f .
  19. a b Hiyoul Kim: Korean History . 2004, p. 32 .
  20. ^ Klaus A. Dietsch: Buyeo . In: South Korea . 1st edition. Trescher Verlag, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-89794-244-8 , Central Korea, p. 274-277 .
  21. ^ In the Heart of Baekje Buyeo, the Last Capital of a Mighty Nation . In: Visit Korea . Korea Tourism Organization , accessed November 17, 2015 .
  22. Hiyoul Kim: Korean History . 2004, p. 32 f .
  23. Nana Miyata: The Adoption of Chinese Culture in Ancient Japan. Cultural change in the domestic and foreign policy context (=  Tübingen East Asian Research . Volume 22 ). LIT Verlag, Münster 2012, ISBN 978-3-643-11329-0 , p. 90 f . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  24. : Injae Lee, Owen Miller, Jinhoon Park, Hyun-hae Yi Korean History in Maps . Cambridge University Press , Seoul 2014, ISBN 978-1-107-49023-9 , pp. 37 (English).
  25. 百 済 王氏 . In: 朝日 新聞 朝 刊 奈良 全 県 ・ 2 地方 . Asahi Shimbun- sha, March 13, 2015, accessed November 18, 2017 (Japanese).
  26. Jonathan Watts : The emperor's new roots . In: The Guardian . December 28, 2001, accessed November 18, 2017 .

Coordinates: 36 °  N , 127 °  E