Fili ( Russian Фили́ ; ) is a former village in Russia and has been an industrial location within the capital Moscow since the early 20th century .
Today it belongs to the Moscow administrative district West and administratively includes the districts Fili-Dawydkowo (Russian Фили-Давыдково ) and Filjowski Park ( Филёвский Парк ) as well as part of the Dorogomilowo district ( Дорогомилово ). Fili borders the Moskva River to the north and west, while the Filjowski Park district in the north is separated from the relatively steep river bank in this area by the Fili Park that gives it its name .
The village of Fili had been known by his name, which was probably derived from the Chwyli river (which flows into the Moskva in this area) since the 15th century. Until the beginning of the 17th century, the village belonged to the Mstislavski boyar family , whose members were very close to the Grand Duke - and later to the court of the Tsars. In the 17th century the property passed to the tax authorities, and around the same time the main church of the village - the then wooden Church of the Protection and Intercession of the Virgin Mary ( Церковь Покрова Пресвятой Богородицы в Филях ) - was first mentioned.
In 1689, Tsar Peter I gave the village to his uncle Lev Naryshkin, who a little later bought the neighboring village of Kunzewo and had both villages expanded considerably in the 1690s. As a particularly noteworthy architectural monument, which has been preserved to this day, the new building of the Protection and Intercession Church was built, which is viewed in terms of style as one of the typical examples of the so-called Naryshkin Baroque (or Moscow Baroque ). At the same time, a new mansion was built in Fili and, for the first time in local history, a ferry connection across the Moscow River. Even after Lev Naryshkin's death, Fili remained in the possession of the Naryshkin family well into the 19th century.
The village of Fili became better known in the early 19th century: During the Napoleon campaign against the Russian Empire in 1812, the place, then a western suburb of Moscow, was on the way between the latter and the battlefield of Borodino . For this reason, the Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov had staff quarters set up in a small village hut, and there, on September 13, 1812, the military council around Kutuzov and Barclay made the strategic decision to leave Moscow after the battle of Napoleon, which was very costly for the Russian army . The little house, known since then as the Kutuzov Hut ( Кутузовская изба ), burned down in 1868 and was reconstructed as a museum two decades later. The Panorama Museum of the Battle of Borodino was built in its vicinity in 1962 and houses , among other things, a panorama painting by Franz Roubaud .
Towards the end of the 19th century Fili increasingly turned into a dacha suburb of Moscow. The remaining remains of the Naryshkin estate were sold by members of the family; parts of the village - including the restored Kutuzov hut - became state property. In 1871 the important Moscow – Smolensk railway line was laid through Fili, and a railway bridge over the Moscow River, now a listed building, was built. At the beginning of the 20th century, even before the October Revolution , the first large-scale industrial companies emerged in Fili. This was the beginning of the mass industrialization of the conveniently located place, which lasted into the late 20th century. In the early Soviet period , Fili was expanded into a so-called workers' settlement, which was officially incorporated into Moscow in 1935.
In the second half of the 20th century, the general appreciation of Fili as a residential area rose sharply, which is mainly due to the relocation of the important Kutuzov Prospekt ( Кутузовский проспект ) through the former village. Even during the Stalin era, the road was regularly used by members of the party and state leadership on the way between the Kremlin and its suburban dachas, which is why this multi-lane expressway and the surrounding area were built in an extremely representative manner. Even today, the districts around Kutuzov Prospect are among the most expensive residential and business locations in the Russian capital.
Large parts of Fili, especially north of the Moscow-Smolensk railway line and west of Fili Park , are still the location of numerous factories, most of which were built in the 1920s and 1930s and have a significant impact on the town. Among the oldest are the factory for the manufacture of roofing felt , founded at the end of the 19th century, as well as the former plants of the first Russian automobile manufacturer Russo-Balt , which were built in 1917 and moved from Riga , in which since 1959 and until today under the company name GKNPZ Khrunichev rocket and spacecraft technology is produced. Between 1922 and 1926, over 200 aircraft and engines were manufactured here in a state joint venture with Hugo Junkers . In 1937 the first Soviet ice cream factory went into operation in Fili , which today operates nationwide under the brand name Ice-Fili . The Rubin television set factory was very well known during the Soviet era , and its former factory building has housed the Gorbuschka market hall , an important market for sound carriers and DVDs, since 2000 .
From an architectural point of view, the area between the railway line, Fili Park and the Moscow River is today a striking monument to early Soviet industrialization, as most of the local structures were built in the 1920s and 1930s. In addition to the actual factory buildings, they also include the workers' apartment blocks typical of the time as well as one of the first Moscow “ factory kitchens ”, a constructivist type of early Soviet large kitchens and canteens .
The Fili passenger station was built in 1902, a few years after the construction of the railway line from Moscow to Smolensk and on to Minsk , Brest and Warsaw . Today it serves as a stop for most local trains (also known as Elektritschki ), which, coming from Belarusian and partly also from Zavyolovo train station , go to the cities of Odintsovo , Kubinka , Zvenigorod , Moshaisk and Gagarin , among others .
The double-track station has a historic reception building, which is no longer used as such, as well as a ticket office and entrance pavilion on the northern side of the tracks. There, right next to the side platform towards Smolensk, there is also one of the two entrances to the metro station of the same name. The second side platform, where the trains in the direction of Moscow stop, is located slightly to the west, on the opposite side of the tracks, and can be reached from the platform in the direction of Smolensk or from the metro exit via a pedestrian bridge or alternatively via an underpass.
Fili Metro Station
In 1959 Fili was first connected to the Moscow metro network with the station of the same name . The station was created as part of the Filjovskaya line, which was largely laid in the 1950s and early 1960s, and, like all stations on this line at the time, is kept very functional and simple. It lies above ground in a cut, immediately south of which is a tunnel section under the railway tracks. There are two side platforms and stairs at both ends. The north exit is located near the residential and industrial district of Filis, while the south exit directly adjacent to the railway station is primarily used as a transition to the suburban trains.
- Full story of Fili (Russian)
- Official website of the Fili-Davydkovo Administration (Russian)
- Official website of the Filevsky Park Administration (Russian)
- Fili Metro Station on the official website of the Moscow Metro (English)
Coordinates: 55 ° 45 ' N , 37 ° 30' E