from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gnetum gnemon, leaves and immature seeds

Gnetum gnemon , leaves and immature seeds

Department : Vascular plants (tracheophyta)
Subdivision : Seed plants (Spermatophytina)
Class : Coniferopsida
Order : Gnetales
Family : Gnetaceae
Genre : Grace
Scientific name of the  family
Scientific name of the  genus

Gnetum is the only genus ofthe Gnetaceae family within the order Gnetales . The approximately 30 species are tropical, woody naked-seed plants .


Illustration from The flora of Africa, especially its tropical regions - Basics of the plant distribution in Africa and the character plants of Africa , 1910 by Gnetum africanum

Vegetative characteristics

All Gnetum species are woody plants, most are lianas , some are small trees or shrubs . The secondary wood contains trachea . Gnetum have true deciduous leaves , like the leaves of angiosperms . They have broad leaf blades with reticulate veins.

Generative characteristics

The Gnetum species are separate-sex plants, there are monoecious ( monoecious ) or dioecious ( dioecious ) species. The flowers of one sex are in several racemose inflorescences . The nucellus of the ovule is surrounded by three sheaths. The seeds contain two cotyledons ( cotyledons ).

Distribution of the genus Gnetum
Section Gnetum Subsection Gnetum : Gnetum gnemon , male inflorescence
Section Gnetum Subsection Micrognemones : Gnetum africanum
Cylindrostachys section : Gnetum latifolium
Cylindrostachys section : Gnetum macrostachyum
Gnetum Okok (óder ikok) cooked and manioc steam

Systematics and distribution

The genus Gnetum was established by Carl von Linné in 1767 . Synonyms for Gnetum L. are Gnemon Rumph. ex Kuntze nom. illeg., Thoa Aubl., Abutua Lour., Arthostema Neck.

The genus Gnetum has a purely tropical distribution, with species in the Neotropics , in West Africa , India and Southeast Asia to Fiji .

The genus Gnetum is divided into two sections and four subsections. There are 30 to 40 types; molecular genetic pedigrees already include most of these species:

Without assignment to a section:


Plant parts are eaten from many species of Gnetum . The starchy seeds are roasted or they are ground; Flatbreads are baked from the flour in fat. The leaves are prepared as leafy vegetables . Some species are used as medicinal plants. The bark provides high quality fibers, for example for string instruments.


  • Christopher J. Earle: Gnetum Linnaeus 1753. In: The Gymnosperm Database. March 1, 2019, accessed April 6, 2019 .
  • H. Won, SS Renner: The internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA in the gymnosperm Gnetum. In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution , Volume 36, 2005, pp. 581-597. doi : 10.1016 / j.ympev.2005.03.011
  • H. Won, SS Renner: Dating dispersal and radiation in the gymnosperm Gnetum (Gnetales) - clock calibration when outgroup relationships are uncertain. In: Systematic Biology , Volume 55, Issue 4, 2006, pp. 610-622. Full text online doi : 10.1080 / 10635150600812619
  • Maarten JM Christenhusz, James L. Reveal, Aljos Farjon, Martin F. Gardner, Robert R. Mill, Mark W. Chase: A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. In: Phytotaxa , Volume 19, 2011, pp. 55-70. Full text PDF.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g Christopher J. Earle: Gnetum Linnaeus 1753. In: The Gymnosperm Database. March 1, 2019, accessed April 6, 2019 .
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Rafaël Govaerts (ed.): Gnetum. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  3. a b Gnetum at In: IPCN Chromosome Reports . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis

Web links

Commons : Gnetaceae  - collection of images, videos and audio files

further reading

  • Chen Hou, Aelys M. Humphreys, Olle Thureborn, Catarina Rydin: New insights into the evolutionary history of Gnetum (Gnetales). In: Taxon , Volume 64, Issue 2, 2015, pp. 239-253. doi : 10.12705 / 642.12
  • Chen Hou: Evolutionary studies of the Gnetales. Thesis for PhD degree, Stockholm June 2016. online.