Guanosine monophosphate

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Structural formula
Structure of guanosine monophosphate
Surname Guanosine monophosphate
other names
  • Guanosine 5'-monophosphate
  • Guanylic acid
  • Guanylate
  • Guanosinate
  • E  626
Molecular formula C 10 H 14 N 5 O 8 P
External identifiers / databases
CAS number 85-32-5
EC number 201-598-8
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.453
PubChem 6804
ChemSpider 6545
DrugBank DB01972
Wikidata Q422473
Molar mass 363.22 g mol −1
Physical state


Melting point

190–200 ° C (decomposition)

safety instructions
GHS hazard labeling
no classification available
Toxicological data

1500 mg kg −1 ( LD Lomouseip )

As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .

Guanosine monophosphate (GMP) is a nucleotide , the phosphoric acid ester of the nucleoside guanosine . Together with adenosine monophosphate ( AMP ), cytidine monophosphate ( CMP ) and uridine monophosphate ( UMP ), it forms the basic building blocks of ribonucleic acid ( RNA ).

Natural occurrence, importance, extraction

As a component of RNA, GMP occurs in all living things. The RNA is used in cells to convert genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) into proteins . It is usually produced industrially with the help of microorganisms, which can also be genetically modified .


Guanosine monophosphate is approved in the EU as a food additive with the number E 626 up to a maximum amount of 500 mg / kg for all foodstuffs approved for additives. Like the disodium (E 627), dipotassium (E 628) and calcium salts (E 629), it is used as a flavor enhancer , the compounds being about 10 to 20 times more effective than glutamic acid ( glutamate ). With the addition of small amounts, the taste of many foods (especially ready-made products and canned meals) is enhanced and some undesirable taste nuances are eliminated. In connection with glutamate, GMP and its salts work synergistically and increase the taste-enhancing effect even in low proportions, around 1:10.

Dipotassium guanylate and calcium guanylate are also used as sodium-free salt substitutes.

Table of E numbers

E number Surname Molecular formula CAS
E 626 Guanosine monophosphate C 10 H 14 N 5 O 8 P 85-32-5
E 627 Disodium guanylate C 10 H 12 N 5 O 8 PNa 2 13474-02-7
E 628 Dipotassium guanylate C 10 H 12 N 5 O 8 PK 2 3254-39-5
E 629 Calcium guanylate C 10 H 12 N 5 O 8 PCa 38966-30-2

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Entry on E 626: Guanylic acid in the European database on food additives, accessed on August 11, 2020.
  2. Entry on guanosine 5′-monophosphate. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on December 28, 2014.
  3. This substance has either not yet been classified with regard to its hazardousness or a reliable and citable source has not yet been found.
  4. ^ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences . Vol. 60, Pg. 251, 1954.
  5. Entry on guanosine monophosphate in the ChemIDplus database of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) .
  6. a b Wissenschaft-Online-Lexika: Entry on guanylic acid (E 626) in the Lexicon of Nutrition , accessed on January 7, 2009.
  7. E. Lück, H. Gölitz, P. Kuhnert: Lexicon of food additives. Behr's Verlag DE, 1998, ISBN 978-3-86022-462-5 , p. 97.