Horacio Vásquez

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Horacio Vásquez Lajara (* 1855 or 1860 in Moca ; † 1936 ) was a Dominican politician and three-time President of the Dominican Republic .


Presidencies 1899 and 1902-1903

Vásquez completed a military training in which he rose to general . He became President of the Dominican Republic for the first time on September 1, 1899 as the successor to Juan Wanceslao Figuereo . However, he handed over this office two and a half months later on November 19, 1899 to Juan Isidro Jiménez . He was Vice President under Jiménez.

He followed this on May 2, 1902 with a coup led by his cousin Ramón Cáceres , who had already shot the dictator Ulises Heureaux , and was president for the second time until March 23, 1903. On April 27, 1903, he went into exile in Cuba . The coup split the republic into two hostile camps: Horacista and Jiminista . This made it possible for the old Heureaux supporters to establish General Alejandro Woss y Gil as ruler in 1903 after a bloody struggle . Shortly afterwards, in October 1903 succeeded in Jiminista , Carlos Felipe Morales by a coup on the presidential chair to sit. Thereupon Vásquez, as opposition leader, promised the members of the US Bureau of Navigation staying in the country that he would give the United States of America a coal station in the Bay of Samaná as soon as he and the Horacista had won power.

In 1912 he was chairman of a revolutionary movement against President Eladio Victoria and the 27-year-old Secretary of War Alfredo Victoria, the president's nephew.

Presidency 1924 to 1930

After the end of the US occupation from 1916 to 1924, he became president for the third time on June 12, 1924, succeeding Juan Bautista Vicini Burgos, and this time held this office for almost six years until March 2, 1930. In the election he prevailed against Francisco Peynado with a large majority. At the same time, his alliance party (Partido Allianza) was able to achieve broad majorities in both chambers of the National Congress, the Senate (Senado) and the Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados).

At first he essentially continued the programs started by the USA, but soon also began his own government projects, whereby great importance was attached to respect for civil liberties. This made him the first president of the republic to maintain public order on the one hand, but respect fundamental rights on the other. This was especially against the background of the military occupation by the United States Army with its censorship , military courts, street patrols, acts of violence and torture of suspects who stood up against the occupying power.

Economically, an expansion of the arable land began to increase food production , which mainly consisted of rice , corn , kidney beans , onions , garlic and meat , while the land was predominantly forested until now. At the beginning of his presidency he needed funds to get these projects off the ground. For this reason, he was prompted to solicit a loan of US $ 25 million from the USA in order to achieve budget consolidation and to reduce debts taken on by the previous governments . In the first two years of government, construction projects made slow progress due to internal budget problems and tariffs. However, negotiations between the Dominican and US governments broke out in 1924, which led to a slight improvement in the 1907 borrowing. However, the US retained part of the customs revenue . However, the 18-year contracts tied the Dominican Republic's financial system back to the previous occupying power in the long term. This contract was therefore massively attacked by the Progressive Party (Partido Progresista), chaired by the incumbent Vice President Federico Velásquez. Contrary to all opposition criticism, this treaty with the USA was concluded on December 27, 1924 and final ratification at the end of April 1925. After approval by the National Congress (Congreso Nacional), another loan was issued in 1926 , with which the construction of the aquaduct of Santo Domingo was made possible. This began the redesign of the capital, some of which began under the US occupation.

In 1929 there was a considerable loss of power in the Vásquez government, which was due to numerous attacks by his opponents. The cause of the protests lay in the dissatisfaction with participation in government decisions. The election campaign for the presidential election was marked by the rivalries between Vásquez and opposing candidates such as José Dolores Alfonseca and Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina . Despite these problems, the government continued public building programs as well as colonization and agricultural development. Because of the money available because of the loans, there were also allegations of corruption against the government and a split in the press and daily newspapers into government-loyal and anti -government camps. While the newspaper “Listín Diario” defended the government's measures, there were anti -government articles, particularly in the daily newspapers “La Opinión” and “La Información”, which appear in Santiago de los Caballeros . The election campaign and the split in the National Party (Partido Nacional) weakened the government, as the National Party, like the Progressive Party under Vice President Velásquez, held influential government offices. In addition, Vásquez fell ill during the election campaign and had to undergo surgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore that resulted in the removal of a kidney .

When Vásquez returned after the operation, General Trujillo Molina was already making a big impact. In addition to his reliance on the national police and the army, he also based this on his property, which it was said he had acquired illegally through robbery. On February 18, 1930, there was a coup d'état in which Trujillo called on President Vásquez to resign, which he declared on March 2, 1930, and initially installed Rafael Estrella Ureña as president in his place, before he finally himself on August 18, 1930 took over the office of President.


Individual evidence

  2. "DOMINICAN PRESIDENT A REFUGEE IN CUBA .; Gene. Vasquez Lands at Guantanamo with 150 Followers - Brother, Who Is Consul General Here, Receives Message, “NEW YORK TIMES April 28, 1903
  3. Ralph Dietl: USA and Central America: The Foreign Policy of William J. Bryan, 1913-1915 . In: Contributions to colonial and overseas history . tape 67 . Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-515-06914-3 , pp. 163 ( limited preview in Google Book Search [accessed January 22, 2017]).
  4. "DOMINICANS ARE restive .; President a Figurehead and His Nephew, Aged 27, Rules, "NEW YORK TIMES March 31, 1912
  5. ^ US Occupation of the Dominican Republic 1916–1924
  6. NEW YORK TIMES November 11, 1929
  7. CHRONICLE March 2, 1930
predecessor Office successor
Juan Wanceslao Figuereo President of the Dominican Republic
Juan Isidro Jiménez
Juan Isidro Jiménez President of the Dominican Republic
1902 - 1903
Alejandro Woss y Gil
Juan Bautista Vicini Burgos President of the Dominican Republic
1924 - 1930
Rafael Estrella Ureña