Bald cabbage ( cruciata glabra )
|( L. ) Honest.|
The bald cabbage ( Cruciata glabra ) is a species of the genus Färberröten ( Rubia ) within the family of the red family (Rubiaceae).
The bald cruciferous herb is closely related to the ciliated cruciferous herb ( Cruciata laevipes ), which is most common in Central Europe . It differs from this among other things by bare flower stalks and missing bracts.
The bald cruciferous herb grows as a deciduous, perennial herbaceous plant and reaches heights of 10 to 30 centimeters. A creeping rhizome is formed. The ascending or upright stalk looks delicate and is square, glabrous or slightly hairy in the lower part.
Four of the bright green leaves sit in a whorl . They are egg-elongated to elliptical in shape, blunt or somewhat pointed in front, clearly three-nerved and ciliate on the edge.
The flowering period extends from April to June. The flowers are in three to neunblütigen whorls in each case above the leaf whorls . The hermaphrodite flowers are fourfold. The four-column crown has a width of about 2 millimeters and is yellow to greenish-yellow in color; very rarely it can also be completely white.
The bare flower stalks are bent down at the fruiting time. The fruit is almost two-spherical in shape with a width of about 2.5 millimeters, smooth and finally becomes blackish.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 22 or 44.
The bald cruciferous herb is a mesomorphic hemicryptophyte .
Cruciata glabra is distributed from northwest Africa and southwest Europe via southern Switzerland , Austria, southern Poland to the Balkan Peninsula and the Caucasus and southern Russia . It is a temperate-continental-sub-Mediterranean floral element . It is rarely found in Central Europe. In Germany, the bald cruciferous herb is rare and found mainly in the central and southern regions. In Austria it occurs in all federal states. In Switzerland it occurs mainly in Ticino and Graubünden .
Cruciata glabra grows on the edges of forests, paths and meadows as well as in sparse forests. It prefers fresh and nutrient-rich clay soils. In Central Europe it occurs mainly in Origanetalia companies or Carpinion companies.
It was first published under the name ( Basionym ) Valantia glabra Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum , 2nd edition, 1762–1763, p. 1491. The new combination to Cruciata glabra was published in 1852 by Friedrich Ehrendorfer . Other synonyms for Cruciata glabra (L.) Ehrend. are: Valantia bauhini (Roem. & Schult.) Schur nom. superfl., Galium glabrum (L.) Röhl. nom. illeg., Galium bauhini Roem. & Schult. , Galium vernum var. Bauhini (Roem. & Schult.) DC.
From Cruciata glabra there depending on the author about four subspecies:
- Cruciata glabra subsp. balcanica (Ehrend.) Soó (Syn .: Cruciata balcanica Ehrend. , Galium verum var. pseudocruciata Röhl. , Galium pseudocruciata (Röhl.) AWHill) : It occurs only in Bosnia .
- Cruciata glabra (L.) Honoring. subsp. glabra : It occurs from Europe to Siberia and the Caucasus and also in northwest Africa.
- Cruciata glabra subsp. hirticaulis (Beck) Natali & Jeanm. (Syn .: Galium vernum var. Hirticaule Beck ): It occurs in southern Europe and in southern central Europe.
- Cruciata glabra subsp. krylovii (Iljin) EGNaumova (Syn .: Galium krylovii Iljin , Cruciata krylovii (Iljin) Pobed. ): It occurs from the Caucasus to Siberia .
- Konrad von Weihe (ed.): Illustrated flora. Germany and neighboring areas. Vascular cryptogams and flowering plants . Founded by August Garcke. 23rd edition. Paul Parey, Berlin / Hamburg 1972, ISBN 3-489-68034-0 .
- Wolfgang Adler, Karl Oswald, Raimund Fischer: Excursion flora of Austria . Ed .: Manfred A. Fischer. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart / Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-8001-3461-6 .
- Christian Heitz: School and excursion flora for Switzerland. Taking into account the border areas. Identification book for wild growing vascular plants . Founded by August Binz. 18th completely revised and expanded edition. Schwabe & Co., Basel 1986, ISBN 3-7965-0832-4 .
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora . With the collaboration of Theo Müller. 6th, revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 1990, ISBN 3-8001-3454-3 .
- ↑ a b c Cruciata glabra (L.) Ehrend., Kahles Kreuzlabkraut. In: FloraWeb.de.
- ↑ a b Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp. 771 .
- ↑ a b c d e f g Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Cruciata glabra. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved January 30, 2016.
- ^ Karol Marhold: Rubiaceae. 2011: Datasheet Cruciata glabra In: Euro + Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Last accessed on January 30, 2016
- Bald cabbage . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Cruciata glabra (L.) Honoring. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora . Retrieved January 30, 2016.
- Thomas Meyer: Kreuzlabkraut data sheet with identification key and photos at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland (old name of the website: Flowers in Swabia ).