Kangal Shepherd Dog
|Kangal Shepherd Dog|
|FCI Standard No. 331|
Kangal Çoban Köpeği , Kangal
Males: 72–78 cm ± 2 cm.
Males: 48–60 kg.
|List of domestic dogs|
The Kangal Shepherd Dog (Turkish: Kangal Çoban Köpeği ) is a Turkish dog breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale ( FCI-Gr. 2, Sek. 2.2, Nr. 331 ). The breed has been recognized since June 6, 1989 (initially under the name Anatolian Shepherd Dog ). On June 15, 2018 the first FCI standard was published, which describes the breed as the Kangal Shepherd Dog, describes the typical black mask and defines Turkey as the country of origin.
The Kangal Shepherd Dogs have a typical black mark on their face ( mask ), due to which they are also called Karabaş ( kara : Turkish black, baş : Turkish head).
According to the FCI standard of 2018, the name of the breed seems to come from the city of Kangal , because even before the Kangal was recognized as a breed, there were extraordinarily uniform shepherd dogs there that attracted international attention.
The Turkish Breeding Association
The Kangal breed is developed as a breed by the Köpek Irkları ve Köpek Bilimleri Federasyonu (KIF) (the Cynological Association of Turkey). The FCI and the KIF signed a partnership agreement on October 14, 2010, with which the KIF became the sole contractual partner of the FCI in Turkey. Since then the Turkish pedigrees have been recognized by the FCI.
The Kangal may come from guard dogs of nomads from between 10,000 v. Moved from Central Asia to Anatolia until 1300 AD. It is believed that it has existed in its current form since the 12th century and that it has been used since then to protect the sheep herds, especially in the region around Sivas and in eastern Anatolia . The city of Kangal in the Sivas Province is particularly known for the Kangal dogs. This theory of the origin of the Kangal is supported by the origin of the name, morphological indications and also by genetic studies. However, there is no scientific consensus on the origin of the kangal. On the other hand, it is clear that the Kangal can be clearly distinguished from the Akbaş , a white herd guard dog from Anatolia, both genetically and in terms of other characteristics of the population , and summarizing this as the Anatolian (or Turkish) Shepherd Dog is wrong.
In 1975 a training program began in Turkey in which Kangal dogs were trained for military purposes.
In 1965, Kangals from Konya Province were brought to Great Britain, where they were later bred and other animals were imported from Turkey. In 1968 the Anatolian Karabash Dog Club (AKDC) was founded. By 2011, the number of Kangals registered in the UK had grown to 1,000 dogs. This was followed by imports and subsequent breeding in other countries such as the USA (from 1985) and the Netherlands (1989). The Kangals came to France in the 1970s. In Germany there are several clubs for breeding the Kangal. There are also kangals in numerous other European countries, but not in such large numbers. There are sometimes considerable differences between the populations inside and outside Turkey. The body weight of the farms outside Turkey is 45–70 kg, while it is 32–45 kg for Kangals in Turkey.
Kangal is not the original name of the breed. The name came to Turkey through discussions with the British Kennel Club in the 1970s. The original name, Karabaş (also Karabasch or Karabash) means black head in Turkish (kara - black, baş - head) and is derived from the black mask of the breed.
The Kangal was registered in 1997 by the Turkish Standards Institute , and the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture recognized it on April 22, 2006. The Turkish Breed Breeding Association is the Çoban Köpeği Irki Derneği , the breed is also bred in state and academic institutions. On June 15, 2018, the FCI published the FCI breed standard for the Kangal Shepherd Dog in the original language of the standard, English. The Turkish Breeding Association wrote that the FCI had recognized the Kangal Shepherd Dog as a breed on this date.
The kangal is a molossoid type dog . The body is muscular and a little longer than it is tall. The coat with thick hair has a fine, thick undercoat . The length of the hair varies, depending on the season, between about 3 and 7 cm, the color is largely uniform and ranges from cream to dark gray. The mask is black, the ears should also be black. The eyes are almond-shaped and as dark as possible, otherwise adapted to the color of the coat, but never colored.
Legal classification as a presumably dangerous dog
In Germany, the Kangal is classified as a presumably dangerous dog in two federal states .
In Hamburg , the Hamburg Law on Keeping and Leading Dogs (Hundegesetz --hundG) of January 26, 2006 for Kangals and crossbreeding of Kangals with other dogs is “dangerous, as long as the competent authority is not proven that for the individual dog it does not show any increased aggressiveness or danger to humans or animals ”. For this purpose, a character test is carried out. In case of doubt, the owner has to prove that the dog is not a Kangal or a Kangal crossbreed.
In Hesse , the Hazard Defense Ordinance on keeping and leading dogs (Dog Ordinance) regulates that dogs of the breed "Kangal (Karabash)" or Kangal crossbreeds are suspected of being dangerous. Therefore, to keep a Kangal or a Kangal crossing, a permit must be obtained, which is linked to a character test of the dog and a certificate of competence from the owner.
Overlap with other races
Organized dog breeding with a western character and with it modern dog breeds are only just emerging in Turkey. This means that only now is the systematic studbook for the breed started and the breeding based on a breed standard. Outside of Turkey, dogs that have their origins in Turkey have been bred as pedigree dogs for a long time .
The FCI ran an Anatolian Shepherd Dog ( Çoban Köpeği ) under the patronage of the FCI with the origin Anatolia until the publication of the first official FCI standard for the Kangal Shepherd Dog on June 15, 2018 under the FCI number 331 .
The UKC recognizes the Kangal as an independent breed alongside the Anatolian Shepherd Dog and maintains a breed standard for it.
The KC also had a recognized breed of Anatolian Shepherd Dog . Their standard was reviewed in 2005 by the Breed Standards and Stud Book Sub-Committee (BSSB). A special meeting was held devoted to the question of a separate recognition of Karabash / Kangal. However, a corresponding proposal was initially not accepted. On October 3, 2012, the KC announced that it would recognize the Kangal as a separate breed under the breed name Turkish Kangal Dog . The provisional breed standard came into effect on April 1, 2013. Since 1 July 2013, the race is on exhibitions approved the KC. Papers of dogs previously registered as Anatolian Shepherd Dogs can be rewritten upon request. In 2018, the KC website on the Kangal said that this breed was a recently recognized breed in Great Britain, which was previously listed as an Anatolian Shepherd Dog, and that the Kangal standard was more detailed.
There are also a number of breed clubs outside Turkey that are not recognized internationally and are dedicated to breeding Kangals.
- Orhan Yılmaz: Kangal (Karabaş) Türk çoban köpeği: tarihçe - tanım - yetiştirme - ıslah . ISBN 978-9944-425-93-3 .
- standard No. 331 of the FCI: Kangal Shepherd Dog (PDF)
- FCI: Circular 10/2011 of January 24, 2011. FCI partnership agreement with Turkey. ( Memento of September 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 121 kB)
- Hakkımızda , KIF (Turkish)
- standard of the KIF
- Evren Koban et al. a .: Genetic relationship between Kangal, Akbash and other dog populations . In: Discrete Applied Mathematics . tape 157 , no. 10 , 2009, p. 2335–2340 , doi : 10.1016 / j.dam.2008.06.040 .
- Metin Erdoğan, Cafer Tepeli, Bertram Brenig, Mine Dosay Akbulut, Cevdet Uğuz, Peter Savolainen, Ceyhan Özbeyaz: Genetic variability among native dog breeds in Turkey . In: Turkish Journal of Biology . tape 37 , 2013, p. 176-183 , doi : 10.3906 / biy-1203-64 .
- Kangal Shephard Dog> General Characteristics Presentation of the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Engl.)
- Orhan Yılmaz, Mehmet Ertuğrul: Spread Story of Kangal (Karabash) Shepherd Dogs in the World . In: Iğdır Üni. Fen Bilimleri Enst. The . tape 1 , no. 3 , 2011, p. 117-120 ( PDF online ).
- Cafer Tepeli, Orhan Çetin, Şeref İnal, Kemal Kirikçi, Alper Yılmaz: Kangal ve Akbaş Irkı Türk Çoban Köpeklerinde Büyume Özellikleri (Growth Characteristics of Kangal and Akbafl Turkish Shepherd Dogs) . In: Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences . tape 27 , 2003, p. 1011-1018 ( PDF ).
- Orhan Yılmaz, Mehmet Ertuğrul, R. Trevor Wilson: The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: breed descriptions and status of guard and hunting dogs. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production August 27–31, 2012 Bratislava Slovakia ( Online pdf 8.6 MB at researchgate.net).
- KIF: "FCI Yönetim Kurulu 15 Haziran 2018 tarihinde yaptığı toplantıda Kangal Çoban Köpeği ırkını FCI 331 numaralı ırk olarak FCI 2. Grup, ikinci bölumen ait ırk olarak onayladi FCI'daÇpe ğan Kangal !!! (The Kangal Shepherd Dog is in the FCI)
- Hamburg Law on Keeping and Leading Dogs (Dog Law - Dog Act) of January 26, 2006. § 2
- Hazard Defense Ordinance on Keeping and Driving Dogs (Dog Ordinance)
- AKC Meet the breeds®: Anatolian Shepherd Dog (Engl.)
- UKC breed standard for the Anatolian Shepherd Dog ( Memento from June 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- UKC breed standard for the Kangal ( Memento from June 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- The Kennel Club annual report 2005 ( Memento of August 8, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 5.1 MB) p. 13
- Recognition of the Turkish Kangal dog ( Memento from February 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). Communication from the KC dated October 3, 2012
- KC standard of the Kangal (dead link!), Accessed on June 11, 2013
- "The breed has only been recently recognized in the UK and was previously included as an Anatolian Shepherd Dog, but the standard for the Kangal reveals more specific details." ( Breed Information Center - Turkish Kangal Dog . Accessed July 8, 2018. )
- Official mascot presented in Istanbul . FIFA press release of November 12, 2012