Kizzuwatna roughly corresponds to the later Cilicia plain . The country bordered the Mediterranean in the south . In the west, the city of Lamiya (on the Limonlu River Çayı , the ancient Lamos) formed the outermost border point to Ḫatti . From the sea the border ran northwards to Illubru, then further in a north-easterly direction to the river Šamri ( Seyhan , the ancient Saros) and further through the Taurus .
The capital was Adaniya (today Adana ), the most important places of worship were Kummanni (perhaps Sirkeli Höyük ) and Lawazantiya (probably Tatarli Höyük), which was not far from Kummanni. Tarša ( Tarsus ) was also an important city. The seaside town of Izzya was probably near ancient Issus on the Gulf of İskenderun .
In the 16th century BC The area of the later land of Kizzuwatna was subjugated by the Hittites. Around 1500 BC Kizzuwatna broke away from Ḫatti and the Hittite king Telipinu recognized the country Kizzuwatna, which is mentioned here for the first time, as an independent state in a treaty with King Išputaḫšu. Išputaḫšu calls himself on a seal that was found in Tarsos , Great King of Kizzuwatna and gives Pariyawatra as his father. It is not known whether he was already king. His successor Eḫeya renewed the state treaty between Kizzuwatna and Ḫatti with the Hittite king Taḫurwaili. His successor Paddatiššu also renewed this treaty, but the name of the Hittite king has not been preserved. No deeds are known of these three kings.
Pilliya concluded a peace treaty with the Hittite king Zidanta II . Another treaty he concluded with Idrimi von Alalaḫ / Mukiš (approx. 1475-1450 BC), who was a vassal of King Paratarna I of Mittani . Possibly he is identical to the priest Palliya. He performed a ritual to the weather god of Kizzuwatna at the source sanctuary of Lawazantiya . Kizzuwatna became a vassal of Mittani under Pilliya.
Šunaššura, the last king of Kizzuwatna, was in a dispute with Niqmepa of Alalaḫ, so that King Sauštatar of Mittani had to act as a mediator between his two vassals. The Hittite king Tudḫaliya I succeeded in getting Šunaššura to break away from Mittani and conclude a treaty with him under the same states, but made Kizzuwatna dependent on Ḫatti. There may have been a previous king named Šunaššura before him.
At least since Tudḫaliya I , Hittite princes with the title “priests” were appointed as administrators of the province of Kizzuwatna. Known are Kantuzzili and later Telipinu , a son of Šuppiluliuma I.
Under Muršili II (1339-1306), the son of Šuppiluliuma, Kizzuwatna, like Mitanni and Arzawa, rebelled unsuccessfully against Ḫatti. In his ninth year of reign, Mursili celebrated the rituals that his father had already vowed to perform in the temple of Kummani. Under King Muwattalli II (1306–1282 BC) Kizzuwatna was definitely under Hittite control again. This king had a relief of himself attached to Sirkeli Höyük.
List of the kings of Kizzuwatna
The chronology of the kings of Kizzuwatna is not completely clear, as it depends on synchronisms with the likewise poorly documented Hittite kings of the Middle Kingdom .
Kings of Kizzuwatna
and their witnessed contemporaries
|King of Ḫatti||King of Kizzuwatna||King of Mittani|
|Zidanta II.||Pilliya||Paratarna I.|
Most of the gods of Kizzuwatna come from the Hurrian pantheon. Teššup , son of Kumarbis , was the weather god , sometimes referred to as the king of Kummani. Ḫepat was his wife and Šarruma was their son. There was also the oath goddess Išḫara and the moon goddess Nikkal as well as the love and war goddess Šawuška . Then on to Muwanuš, in whose name stone pillars were erected, and the sun god Šimige . A fire god ( D GIBIL ) of unknown name and the weather god of Manuziya , who was especially venerated in the ḫišuwa festival , as well as the weather god of Ḫulašša. In Lawazantiya a triad of Teššup, Ḫepat and Šawuška was worshiped. Also the gods of the mountains and the rivers of Kizzuwatna and the gods of Kizzuwatna.
- Albrecht Goetze : Kizzuwatna and the Problem of Hittite Geography (= Yale Oriental Series. Researches 22, ). Yale University Press et al., New Haven CT 1940 (reprinted. Ams Press, New York NY 1980, ISBN 0-404-60322-X ).
- James G. Macqueen: The Hittites and their contemporaries in Asia Minor (= Ancient Peoples and Places . Vol. 83, ). Thames and Hudson, London 1975.
- Jacques Freu: Luwiya, Géographie historique des provinces méridionales de l'empire hittite: Kizzuwatna, Arzawa, Lukka, Milawatta. In: Center de recherches comparatives sur les langues de la Méditerranée ancienne. Document. Vol. 6, No. 2, 1980, , pp. 177-352.
- Hans Martin Kümmel : Kizzuwatna. In: Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Aräologie . Volume 5: Ia ... - Kizzuwatna. de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 1980, ISBN 3-11-007192-4 , pp. 627-631.
- Paolo Desideri, Anna Margherita Jasink: Cilicia. Dall'età di Kizzuwatna alla conquista macedone (= Università degli Studi di Torino, Fondo di Studi Parini-Chirio. Storia. Vol. 1). Le Lettere, Torino 1990, ISBN 88-7166-012-9 .
- Jacques Freu: De l'indépendance à l'annexion: le Kizzuwatna et le Hatti aux XVIe et XVe siècles avant notre ère. In: Éric Jean, Ali M. Dinçol, Serra Durugönül (eds.): La Cilicie. Espaces et pouvoirs locaux (2e millénaire av. J.-C. - 4e siècle ap. J.-C.). = Cilicia. Mekânlar ve yerel Güçler (M.Ö. 2. binyıl - MS 4. Yüzyıl) (= Varia Anatolica. Vol. 13). Institut français d'études anatoliennes d'Istanbul et al., Beyoglu-Istanbul et al. 2001, ISBN 2-906053-64-3 , pp. 13-36.
- Rita Strauss: Purification rituals from Kizzuwatna. A contribution to research into the Hethitian ritual tradition and cultural history. de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2006, ISBN 3-11-017975-X (At the same time: Berlin, Free University, dissertation, 2003: Hittite techniques of catharsis using the example of the rituals from Kizzuwatna. ).
- Mirko Novák: Kizzuwatna, Ḥiyawa, Quwe - An outline of the cultural history of the Cilicia Plain , in J. Becker / R. Hempelmann / E. Rehm (eds.): Cultural landscape Syria - center and periphery. Festschrift for Jan-Waalke Meyer, Alter Orient and Old Testament 371 (Münster 2010), 397-425
- Massimo Forlanini: How to infer Ancient Roads and Intineraries from heterogenous Hittite Texts: The Case of the Cilician (Kizzuwatnean) Road System , KASKAL 10, 2013, 1-34.
- Mirko Novák and Susanne Rutishauser: Tutḫaliya, Šunaššura and the border between Ḫatti and Kizzuwatna , in: C. Mittermayer, S. Ecklin (eds.): Ancient Oriental Studies in Honor of Pascal Attinger , Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 256, Academic Press, Friborg / Göttingen 2012, 259–269.
- Mirko Novák and Susanne Rutishauser: Kizzuwatna: Archeology. In: M. Weeden and LZ Ullmann (Eds.): Hittite Landscape and Geography. Handbook of Oriental Studies I, 121 , Brill, Leiden 2017, 134–145.
- Ekin Kozal and Mirko Novák: Facing Muwattalli. Some Thoughts on the Visibility and Function of the Rock Reliefs at Sirkeli Höyük, Cilicia , in: E. Kozal, M. Akar, Y. Heffron, Ç. Çilingiroğlu, TE Şerifoğlu, C. Çakırlar, S. Ünlüsoy and E. Jean (Eds.): Questions, Approaches, and Dialogues in the Eastern Mediterranean Archeology Studies in Honor of Marie-Henriette and Charles Gates , Alter Orient und Altes Testament , Ugarit -Verlag, Münster 2017, 371–388.
- Ekin Kozal and Mirko Novák: Alalakh and Kizzuwatna. Some Thoughts on the Synchronization , in: Ç. Maner, A. Gilbert, M. Horowitz (eds.): Overturning Certainties in Near Eastern Archeology, A Festschrift in Honor of K. Aslıhan Yener for her 40 years of Field Archeology in the Eastern Mediterranean , Brill, Leiden 2017, 296–317 .
- Information on the Hittite Empire with three large historical maps
- Zidanta Treaty ( Memento of February 10, 2012 on the Internet Archive ) (English translation)