List of snooker terms
This article provides a comprehensive overview of the terms and rules of snooker . The statements on the rules follow the official rules of the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association (WPBSA) in the version of November 2019, with regard to the terms used, in part also the rules of the national associations of Germany ( DBU ), Austria ( BSVÖ ) and Switzerland ( SBV ) for the German-speaking area.
Terms with their own entry in this list are written in italics the first time they appear in the text of other chapters .
On the right are some of the most important snooker players in history to date.
16 Reds clearance
A 16 reds clearance is a total clearance in which in a break in addition to 15x red + color + all six colors in the endgame on the colors , a free ball as red and another color are punched at the beginning . Such a freeball is obtained when the white ball snookered onto all red balls after a foul by the opponent before the first red ball was punched. In this case, 155 points are required for a maximum break (147 points for the normal maximum + 1 point for the free ball + 7 points for black), as the maximum possible number of points is always required. The only 16-Reds clearance ever achieved in a professional tournament and thus the highest officially documented break was played in 2004 by the Scot Jamie Burnett with 148 points during his qualifying game against Leo Fernandez for the UK Championship .
Storage and secure storage
The place on the table where the white cue ball should rest after the shot is called a shelf . If you are good at the break and the picture on the table is a continuation, you choose a position as cheaply as possible for the next ball on when you push using the appropriate spin and speed . If you can only safely punch the next ball on or if you just want to play a safety straight away, you choose a safe place as far away as possible from the next ball on for the opponent and / or very close to a board . A secure storage of the game ball is also particularly important in a re-mocked black or black ball game .
If balls are played or hit very slowly, it can happen that the ball deviates from the straight line without the player having given a spin . This undesirable behavior , because it is detrimental to the precision of the impact , is called lapse. Especially if balls are to be played very thinly, this can lead to a foul and miss . It can also happen because a played or ball along the band just to the next bag should run lochbar, leaves this and the break ended.
The kick-off is the opening kick in a frame in which all balls are in the basic line-up. To this end, the previously ausgeloste and kicker places the white cue ball itself determined within the D . It is still possible to reposition the ball until it is hit with the cue . Red Ball is always on when kick-off . Since there is practically no possibility of a direct hole in or against the crowd with the first shot , the shot is basically always carried out as a safety . The kicking player also tries not to bring the returning cue ball into contact with the blue ball, so as not to leave the opponent a beginner . Colloquially: "What ever you do, don't hit the blue"
Abandonment of a frame or game
Premature termination or abandonment of a frame or game z. B. out of frustration or because a white-wash threatens, is generally not permitted in the normal course of the game. If there are health reasons, these must be reported immediately to the referee , who will then make a decision. Is the frame ball already punched, d. H. A player needs additional foul points from the opponent to win a frame on his own , he can give up the frame if he should come back to the table and the opponent signals with a short gesture of approval that he does not insist on continuing. However, for reasons of gentlemen's sport , it is forbidden to leave the arena prematurely while the leader is still at the table.
Placing (mocking) the colored balls
The colored balls are placed on the table by the referee together with the red object balls before the start of a frame or in the event of a re-rack . During the frame, all colors that comply with the rules or that are illegal or that are no longer on the table due to a ball-off-table situation are spotted, as long as there are still red balls on the table. If a player has punched the last red correctly, he may punch any color, which is also put back on. In the following endgame on the colors , perforated colored balls do not come back on the table, unless it is a free ball or balls that were not ball on . There is another very rare case where a color comes back on the table in Endgame: a ball that has stopped on the edge of a pocket later falls without being hit by another ball. If there is a tie at the end of a frame, in certain cases also in a game or match, there is a re-spotted black after the final , in which black is put back on once again. The colored balls are placed on their respective spots or, if these are occupied by other balls, according to the rules for occupied spots at the appropriate place.
If one or more balls are not placed correctly and the error is noticed before the next shot, the balls are brought into the correct position. If the error is only noticed when a new shot has already been made by a player, the balls are considered to be correctly placed for the subsequent shots. The execution of a shot in spite of incorrectly placed balls is not considered a foul for the player. If a color is wrongly not on the table, it must be put back on as soon as it is noticed. If, due to an error by the referee, the ball in question was not on the table when a kick occurred, this is also not a foul by the player. However, if the player has kicked before the referee was able to touch the ball, this is a foul, which is punished with at least 4 points depending on the value of the highest ball involved in the foul or, if more significant, the ball on. If a color is mistakenly reassigned to the colors during the endgame , it is removed from the playing surface as soon as the error has been discovered and the game continues from this position, even if there have been kicks by players in the meantime. In this case, too, there is no foul by the players.
Put on the red balls
The red balls are placed on the table by the referee together with the colored object balls before the start of a frame or in the event of a re-rack . They are as close together as possible in an equilateral triangle between the pink and black spots . The red ball at the tip of the triangle lies as close as possible to the pink ball on the longitudinal axis of the table, but without touching it, and the opposite leg of the triangle is parallel to the headband . The referee uses a special template, the standardized triangle, to correctly place the red balls.
Red balls that have been punctured or jumped from the table in accordance with the rules or in violation of the rules will not be put back on again during the frame, except in the case of a re-rack. Exception: After a foul and a miss , the opponent decides to repeat the stroke and the table before the last stroke is restored. In two other very rare cases, too, a red ball comes back on the table: a ball that has come to a standstill on the edge of a pocket later falls without being hit by another ball, or a ball that is different from the one Player at the table was moved falls.
Exit (break exit)
Leaving the table in a controlled and planned manner is referred to as the exit from a break because there is no safe continuation from the table. Regardless of which ball is on , the player plays a safety . Such an exit is possible at any time and it does not matter whether or how many points were previously scored in the break. If a player has already punched the frame ball , is not in a high break himself and has a sufficient cushion of points, the opponent can be encouraged to give up the frame prematurely with his own exit .
At the beginning of a frame lie in snooker 22 balls on the table : A white plaything (cue-ball) and 21 object balls consisting of 15 red and 6 colored balls. In some special forms of snooker such as B. Six Red Snooker is also played with fewer than 15 red balls. Snooker balls are usually made of phenolic resin and weigh between 130 and 150 g. In a set, the balls should be as equally heavy as possible, whereby the weight difference between the lightest and the heaviest ball must not be greater than 3 g. The balls have a diameter of 52.5 mm with a tolerance of +/- 0.05 mm.
Ball on the edge of the pocket
If an object ball falls into a pocket during a stroke without being hit by another ball , it is returned to its previous position and all points scored in the stroke are scored. However, this does not apply if it had been hit by any ball involved in the stroke, it would still have been on the table . In this case, all balls are returned to their position before the kick. If the stroke was made in accordance with the rules, the player may repeat the stroke or make any other stroke from the old position. This also applies in cases where a foul would have happened if the ball had still been on the table, e.g. B. because the fallen ball was not a ball on and would have been punched. However, if the shock is illegal, i. H. If a foul has been committed, the player is punished with the corresponding foul points and the opponent decides whether he should come to the table himself or whether the other player should continue playing from the restored position. Balls that fall into a pocket for whatever reason between two hits are returned to their previous position.
If a ball that is hit in a push sways or balances briefly on the edge of the pocket, but then falls into it, it is considered punched and will not be returned to its position on the edge of the pocket.
Ball on the gang
If a player plays a safety in a controlled manner to get out of the break , he tries to play a snooker and / or to put the ball very close to a board in order to make the opponent's continued play as difficult as possible. If the cue ball is extremely close to a board, the opponent can - if a ball on the same board is not playable and punchable - only play it on the top, which improves the possibilities of cue ball control for hitting object balls and achieving playable table images or high breaks are very limited.
Ball that is moved differently than by the player at the table
If a ball is moved by anything other than the player at the table , it must be returned to its previous position by the referee . If the movement of a ball is changed by anything other than the player at the table, the referee must move the ball into the position where he believes it would have stopped without the change. The same is true if something or a person causes the player at the table to move a ball or change its movement. However, if a ball moves because of a defect in the playing surface, it is not reset unless the ball has just been touched down and the next shot has not yet taken place. The player at the table does not commit a foul in any of the cases and therefore does not receive any penalty points.
Ball in hand
Ball in hand describes a situation in the game in which the player can place the white cue ball at any point within the D and make his first shot from there . Ball in hand always occurs when the kick-off and a re-spotted black occur and when the ball has fallen into a pocket or has left the table entirely. The referee has the player on request state whether the game ball, d correctly. H. was not positioned outside the line of D. The point of contact of the ball is decisive here. The cue ball remains in hand until it is properly kicked or a foul is committed while it is on the table. As long as its position may still - with the help of the queues , but not the cue tip ( bitter orange ) - to be corrected at will. If the cue tip touches the cue ball while it is being positioned, this is not considered a foul if the referee recognizes that it is not an attempt to push and the ball is still in hand, i.e. not yet in play. Incorrect ball-in-hand play, e.g. B. if the cue ball is not placed within the D, is a foul that is punished in the amount of the ball on , but at least with 4 points.
Ball in play
The cue ball is in play when there is no ball-in-hand situation. Object balls are in play from the beginning of a frame until they have been punched or the ball is off the table . The colors are back in play as soon as they are put back on (mocked).
The ball marker, often also called a marker for short, is an aid used by the referee to mark the lying position on the table when cleaning the balls or to measure the space between a spot that is to be reoccupied and the surrounding balls (see Occupied Spots ). For this, the ball marker is on the one hand made spherical on the inside to fit the ball, on the other hand the outside dimension corresponds exactly to the whole diameter in width and half of the ball diameter in depth. Since there are game situations where, when putting balls back on, tight balls must first be removed, the referee always has several of these ball markers with him.
As long as a ball-marker is on the table to mark the position of a ball, it is itself considered the ball and has its value. For this reason, too, any touching or moving of a ball marker by a player is a foul and is punished with foul points equal to the value of the ball marker, provided that the marker is worth at least 4 points and there is no higher value ball on.
Ball on refers to the object balls , one of which or the object ball that must be hit first by the game ball in the next stroke , as well as the ball or balls that may be punched in this stroke. In order to meet the criterion that a ball is hit first, the cue ball does not have to reach it directly; it can also be played over one or more boards. As long as there are still red balls on the table, the red and one color ball are on alternately in a break , always starting with the red plus possibly a free ball on the first push in the break. In the endgame of the colors , the lowest value color still on the table is always plus a free ball ball on.
If the colored balls are played on, the ball on is the one that was verbally nominated by the player before the shot. The announcement of a colored ball can be dispensed with if it is obvious from the game situation which color is being played. In this case, which occurs most frequently during the course of the game, aiming with the queue is considered to be a rule-compliant nomination of the color, unless the referee requests an announcement in individual cases . In addition, nothing more needs to be announced in the endgame on the colors due to the prescribed sequence. The color that is on must be hit by the game ball first and only this may be punched, possibly after intermittent contact with other object balls. In the case of a free ball in the endgame on the colors, the free ball must first be hit, alone or at the same time with the actual color on, and the free ball and / or the color on may be punched, but only once points equal to the Color on there.
When playing on the red balls nothing needs to be announced, since all red balls are on. With a red that was played first, another red can be pocketed and several red balls can be hit and / or fall simultaneously with one push. Red, perforated balls that fall through a combination of red-color-red are also valid if a red ball was hit correctly first and no colored ball fell. If there is a free ball, it must first be hit - alone or at the same time with a red ball - and the free ball and / or each red ball may be punched. The player receives one point for each perforated red ball and also the free ball, but may only play once on a colored ball. Punching several red balls at the same time is usually not the aim, as this reduces the total number of points that can be achieved and is therefore disadvantageous, unless you lead high enough to “take points from the table”.
If a ball that is not on is hit first or at the same time with a ball on, or if it is punched, or if a free ball is not hit first, it is a foul . It is penalized to the value of the ball on or, if higher, the highest ball involved in the foul, but at least 4 points and, depending on the situation, a miss .
Ball off the table
The ball off table situation occurs when a ball comes to a stop on something other than the playing surface or in a pocket , or when it is picked up by the player at the table or is intentionally moved by hand while in play and stops always constitutes a foul . Such a foul is penalized to the value of the ball on or, if more significant, the highest ball involved in the foul, but at least 4 points. The cue ball in the ball in hand situation is of course excluded from this .
Gangs are the inner boundaries of the playing area at the snooker table . The short band near the Baulk-line is called the foot band and the one opposite, near the black spot , is called the head band . The boards consist of wooden strips with glued-on, usually L-shaped natural rubber profile , covered by the same cloth as is used to cover the playing surface. This results in a vertical impact surface in the upper part of the board. The lower part runs diagonally through the cloth covering towards the edge of the table. There is no standard of the WPBSA for the height of the boards in snooker ; it is usually 40 mm. In snooker, the boards represent an active play element in addition to the pure demarcation. You can use the cue ball z. B. for a safety close to the board , or "play over board" to avoid balls lying in the direct path. It makes the table image for the shock necessary, which may Bock hand or their finger on the bonds are placed.
Baulk-line (foot line)
The Baulk-line (base line) is a thin recorded cross-line on the snooker table , at a distance of 29 inches (= 736.6 mm) parallel to the foot rail , and the straight line of the D . The middle of the line also forms the “brown” spot , the two corner points of the D are the “yellow” and the “green” spot . Otherwise the Baulk-line has no further marking or rules functions.
If a colored ball has been punched by the player at the table or has jumped off the table, it is always placed on its original spot . The exception to this is a rule-compliant, perforated ball in the endgame on the colors , provided it was not a free ball . If the spot is blocked by one or more other balls, the ball is placed on the highest value free spot. If several colors have to be put back on whose spots are occupied, the balls are distributed to the free spots in the order of their value: The highest value on the highest value free spot, etc. If all spots are occupied, the ball is as close as possible, but without touching another, placed close to its spot, on the shortest line between the spot in question and the headband , or, if there is no space available there (for the black or pink ball), the spot and the footboard . In this case, the referee asks the player to be a little more patient when it comes to re-positioning.
The best-of mode (German: "das Beste / Most von") means that a player wins a game if he wins more than half of an odd number of specified frames (e.g. 4 out of 7. .. 18 of 35) and the game ended. Further frames then no longer have to be played. Most games in professional tournaments ( matches ) are best-of-9 games, final games are usually best of 17 or best of 19. In the snooker world championship , the games range from best of 19 (qualification, 1st round) to best of 35 (final).
Black ball game
If there is only black on the table after the hole in the final game on the colors and the difference in points in the frame is less than 7 points, a so-called black ball game occurs, in which the next following evaluation (correctly punched or foul ) the frame- or even brings the match decision. If a player is 7 points behind and now black holes correctly or receives 7 foul points from the opponent, there is still a re-spotted black because of the equalization of points for the final decision . The final of the 1985 Snooker World Cup was only decided in the decider in a black ball game.
The goat hand or "the goat" is the front anchor point in the joint and essential for the safe guidance of the cue . If the cue ball from the band on the table , is located which - depending on handedness - right or left hand first fingerspreizend and flat on the cloth, optimally about a hand length before the game ball. Then the middle of the hand is pulled up a little, which creates a small cavity under the hand when the fingertips and heel of the hand are on top, and the thumb is pressed up onto the hand. This creates a "groove" for guiding the cue.
If the plaything on or near the table edge, the Bock hand to the band laid out and the queue between the thumb and forefinger. Which is usually done in addition the queue the top of the gang striped.
If the cue ball is so behind a group of balls that the player neither has enough space to position his hand "normally" as a buck or to play with the help of the simple auxiliary cue (X-Rest), the "high buck" or "attack" is often the result “Used. The player places three fingers on the table as supports and then guides the cue in the groove between the index finger and thumb. The high buck is also used when the cue ball is deliberately to be pushed steeply from above, e.g. B. for a bow ball .
A bow ball is a demanding type of kick to hit the ball that you actually snookered on directly. For this you play with spin . The queue is for this purpose - steeper than normal up to almost vertical (the "head bump") into the - depending on the size of the sheet plaything recognized, and the Einstoßpunkt laterally offset to the side in which the sheet is to run. If the ball is to make an arc to the left, the cue with the bitter orange must start to the left of the middle and vice versa. The following applies: the more lateral approach and the less steep, the greater the curve of the white ball. The "high buck" (see buck hand ) is often used.
The word break has two meanings in snooker:
It describes a series of balls with holes in accordance with the rules while a player is continuously at the table , i.e. from the moment the player comes to the table until he either misses a pocket or commits a foul and is not asked to continue playing by the opponent. The German term for a break is recording. At the first shock in a break is ball on always red plus possibly a free-ball while still red balls on the table are, and then, in the final game of the colors may always the least significant still lying on the table color plus a free ball The breakpoints always only include points scored directly, ie the points for the punched balls, but not those credited that are received for a foul by the opponent. A break of 100 points or more is called a century break . A total clearance that is punched with the maximum possible number of points, i.e. H. every red ball is followed by the black ball, called maximum break and is relatively rare. A maximum break normally has 147 points (15 x (1 point for red + 7 points for black) + 27 points in the endgame on the colors ), in the case of a 16 reds clearance 155 points (147 points + 1 point for the free Ball as substitute red + 7 points for black). The only previously recorded 155 break was played by Jamie Cope in a training match in 2005; the highest break in an official tournament match was achieved by Scotsman Jamie Burnett in 2004 during his qualifying game against Leo Fernandez for the UK Championship with 148 points. The number of points in a frame is not limited because of possible foul points and can therefore be higher than 147 or 155.
A Century Break , often just called Century for short, is a series of at least 100 points scored in a break (recording), whereby any foul points credited are not counted, and is therefore a special achievement of a player. It is therefore always honored with special applause in tournaments ( matches ). Assuming the optimal hole success, i.e. each red + black = 8 points, you need at least 26 flawless shots (13 × 8 = 104 points) in a row. A Century can of course also be achieved using the "smaller" colors , but then requires even more joints.
This term (English: Chinese snooker) is used jokingly by snooker players. It describes a game situation in which the direct path to the object ball is free, but the game ball is so close in front of another ball that a safe hit cannot be made. In this case, the cue ball must be pushed steeply from above either with a high buck or an auxiliary cue , which means that it is not fully controllable, as no spin can be applied to it. Or he is played sideways to the ball on about gang meeting, which is associated with increased risk. In addition, there is a high risk of touching the offending ball and thus causing a foul .
Clearance means the "clearing" of the table , whereby all remaining balls still on the table are sunk in a break (a recording). One speaks of total clearance when all the balls lying on the table at the beginning of the frame are sunk in just one shot. In addition, there is a 16 reds clearance if at the beginning of the break there is a free ball and another color in addition to the 15x red + color. A maximum break results when a black ball is punched after every red ball, including the possible free ball as a substitute red.
The D is a drawn semicircle above the center of the Baulk-line towards the foot board , with a radius of 11½ inches (= 292.1 mm). In its center is the spot for the brown ball, on the right corner, viewed from the footboard, the one for the yellow and on the left corner the one for the green ball. When kicking off or with other ball-in In hand situations, the players may only place the cue ball inside or on the lines of the D.
- Deviation from this, see: Snooker Shoot-Out .
The Decider (of English "to decide";.. Dt decide ) deciding frame in a game . In the game according to the "Best of" rule , there is always an odd number of frames , and if the penultimate of the maximum possible frames only tie instead of a game decision, a decider is necessary. The players shake hands again beforehand - as at the beginning of each session . Instead of the number of the frame, the referee's announcement now reads: "The last frame of this game, [player name] to break."
- Deviation from this, see: Snooker Shoot-Out .
Doubles (four-handed snooker)
Double or four-handed snooker is a variant of snooker in which two players play together as a team. In doubles, the two partners alternately begin the frames for which their team has the opening kick ( kick-off ). The further order of play, i.e. which player of the opposing team follows the player who played the opening break, must be determined at the beginning of a frame. It can no longer be changed during the frame, but can be redefined with each new frame. If a foul has been committed and the opponent has asked to continue playing, the player who committed the foul remains at the table, whereby the order of the players for the following breaks does not change. If the foul is declared for out-of-turn play , i.e. if the wrong player has come to the table , the offender's partner loses the break, i.e. H. at the end of the break, the player from the opposing team comes to the table, who regularly follows the offender's partner. This also applies if the opposing team has asked to continue playing and the fouling player initially remains at the table. If there is a re-taunts Black at the end of a frame (or game or match ) due to a tie , the team that plays the first stroke has the choice of which of the two players starts. The previous order of play of the frame is retained for any subsequent impacts.
The two partners are allowed to talk to each other during a frame, but not as long as one of the two players is at the table and his break has not yet ended. The latter represents a foul that is penalized for the value of the ball on at the time of the foul, at least with 4 points, or, after correctly punching red, but before nominating a color, with 7 points. A foul due to playing out of order is punished with points of the same amount.
Double and Cross Double
In the case of a double, a ball is not played directly, but via boards - at a more or less acute angle - into a pocket that is on the player's side, i.e. against the direction of impact. In most cases this will be one of the center pockets. If the white ball crosses the future path of the object ball before it comes back from the gang, it is called a cross double.
(Also double touch, Double Kiss counter called) it is called when the various players ball touches an obstacle and a second time on the rebounding game ball hits. This is usually not intended as the effect on the cue ball is difficult to calculate. If, after an unintentional double kiss, a positive result is obtained, this is a classic example of a fluke .
If the cue is still in contact with the cue ball after the shot or if the cue is still in contact with the cue ball while it hits an object ball , the referee decides to push through (push shot). A penetration is a foul that is penalized with the value of the ball on or, if more significant, the highest ball involved in the foul, but with at least 4 points. There is a particular risk of puncture when the game ball and object ball are close together. In such a situation, however, it is not considered a penetration if the player hits the object ball as thinly as possible on the outermost edge.
The spin [ɛfeː] (fr. Effect) is a twist, a player the white ball can give to, depending on where he met the queue the cue ball touched. A distinction is made between returns (pulling balls) in which the cue ball runs back towards the player after contact with the object ball, back-up movements in which the cue ball runs behind the object ball and side effects in which the cue ball is not at the "natural" angle (angle of incidence) Object ball or a gang expires. Return and follow-up can be combined with the side effect, e.g. B. to produce bow balls . The purpose of spin is to control the cue ball and bring it into an optimal position to play the next object ball. The spin can also be transferred to the object ball to a small extent.
A beginner is a red ball that the opponent leaves punchable on the table in the event of fouls or missed kicks . If the cue ball to the red ball on or the red to the pocket has to cover more than half the length of the long side of the table, one speaks of a "long beginner". Long beginners have only become standard kicks since the beginning of the 1990s, due to the high demands even in professional snooker.
End game on the colors
After all red balls are out of play, and if the last red ball has been correctly punched again on any color, the endgame on the colors begins: To do this, all colors must one after the other, but they must increase in their value, i.e. starting with Yellow (2 points) through green (3), brown (4), blue (5) and pink (6) to black (7), which is why it is no longer necessary to nominate the color before the joint . If you are already 8 or more points ahead in the frame after punching pink, you can dispense with punching the last black ball, as there is always only a score of 7 points. A maximum of 27 points can be achieved in the final, unless there are still one or more free balls . A perforated color does not play in the final set up (spotted), except it is a free-ball or a ball that was not on. Exception: After a foul and a miss, the shot is repeated and the table image is restored before the last shot. Two other very rare exceptional cases are: a ball that has come to a standstill on the edge of a pocket later falls without being hit by another ball, or a ball that has been moved differently than by the player at the table falls.
If one does not hit the ball on in the endgame , or a ball does not fall on or is hit first or at the same time with the ball on, this is a foul . If in a free ball situation the free ball is not hit first, alone or at the same time as the actual ball on, this is also a foul. Such fouls are penalized to the value of the ball on or, if more significant, the highest ball involved in the foul, but at least 4 points.
As Fluke is known in Snooker an unforeseen result in shock , as when a ball at being played pocket rebounds, but then randomly but falls or if, even in another bag. B. When playing on red, one or more other red balls or a color fall into pockets next to or instead of the red ball that is to be punched. Sometimes flukes can be observed across multiple gangs . A fluke can prevent a player from leaving the table by correctly punching a ball on unexpectedly, or by preventing the expected fall of a ball that is not on through the random collision of balls. A fluke can also create snooker or other difficult positions for the opponent or for the player at the table himself, which would not have arisen with the actually intended run of the balls. If several reds fall accidentally, this can have a negative effect as it takes the required points off the table.
Whole frame and game wins as well as maximum breaks have already been achieved with the help of Flukes. For reasons of gentlemen's sport , it is common in snooker for a player to apologize to his opponent after a fluke that was positive for him.
A foul is an illegal push or other illegal behavior that ends the player's break at the table unless the opponent tells him to continue playing. Violations of the rules that do not affect which player is on the break are penalties . A foul is decided by the referee , announced and punished with foul points, which are credited to the opponent. For most fouls, the amount of the points corresponds to the value of the ball on or the highest ball involved in the foul , if it is more valuable than the ball on, but is at least 4 points, but for some fouls it is always 7 points. The maximum amount of foul points during or before a shot is 7 - there is no accumulation of “several” committed fouls (e.g. red is on, color and the game ball falls) in snooker. If a foul is committed during a stroke, the player also receives no points for balls punched with the stroke. However, all points from previous hits in the break are retained. A foul is only valid if announced by the referee or complained by the opponent before the next shot is taken.
If a player has committed a foul, his opponent can either let him continue the game or continue playing himself. If the foul was committed between two strokes or if the referee decides to miss , the fouled opponent has the additional option of having the stroke repeated. To do this, the referee must restore the previous situation, i.e. put the balls moved by the miss back to where they were before the kick. A miss can be given by the referee until a player needs additional points (from fouls) to win a frame. If a player could play a ball on directly and fully, the referee must warn after the 2nd unsuccessful attempt (foul and usually also miss) that another foul would mean the loss of the frame. If the white ball is no longer on the playing surface, the ball-in-hand rule applies. The decision to allow the player who committed the foul to continue playing from his current position or to have the shot repeated cannot be reversed by the opponent, and the person requested to continue playing decides for himself which shot to make and which ball to hit want.
Fouls punished for the value of the ball on are:
- The cue ball falls into a pocket , is touched more than once during the shot, or is played incorrectly from ball in hand , or is used for a jump shot .
- The cue ball is snookered behind a free ball , unless there is only pink and black on the table.
- No object ball is hit.
- The player does not touch the ground with at least one foot when pushing.
- A kick occurs before the referee has finished touching a suit played as a free ball or before the opponent's break has finished.
- In a double (four-handed snooker) the player plays out of order, or talks to his partner as long as one of the two is still at the table and the break is not over.
- A non-standard compliant queue is used.
Fouls that are penalized in the amount of the value of the ball on or the highest ball involved in the foul, insofar as this is higher than the ball on, are:
- A ball that is not on is hit first or at the same time with a ball on or is punched, or a free ball is not hit first or not simultaneously with the actual ball on, or a ball bounces off the table , or a penetration occurs.
- A shot occurs before the referee has finished touching a colored ball that was not a free ball, or before all of the balls from the previous shot have stopped.
- A ball or ball marker is touched with the body, the hand, the cue or auxiliary cue , the clothing ( clothing foul ) or the chalk dice, with the exception of the ball in hand. Such fouls are usually reported by the player himself, as the referee often cannot see them because of his observation position.
Fouls that are penalized with seven points are:
- A foul is committed after a red ball or free ball has been punctured in accordance with the rules but before a color has been nominated, or a failure to nominate a ball before the kick, despite the game situation or the referee requesting it.
- Any ball other than the white ball is used as a cue ball.
- When reverting to the previous state after a miss, a ball is touched or a 'ball off the table' is used in some way.
- Tools, including chalk, are used to measure distance and distance .
Example cases for determining the foul points:
- Blue is on, is hit first and also sunk, but the cue ball also falls into a pocket . This foul is punished with five penalty points.
- Blue is on, but black is hit first. The opponent is awarded seven points.
- Blue is announced and played correctly into the pocket, but the pink ball also falls. The opponent receives six points (pink), and both balls are put back on.
- Deviation from this, see: Snooker Shoot-Out .
In snooker, a frame is a counting unit, similar to the sentence in tennis . The player who scores the most points in a frame wins it. The game is won by the player who wins the most frames in best of mode. In the various tournaments ( matches ) and game rounds, different numbers of frames have to be played. The maximum number of frames in official tournaments of the Snooker Main Tour is currently 35 in the final of the Snooker World Championship . In almost all tournaments, the number of frames is odd because of the best-of mode. An exception is the Premier League Snooker , where six frames have to be played and a tie is possible. But there are also tournaments in which the number of frames won is not decisive for victory, but the sum of the points from all frames of a game or tournament.
A frame begins when all the balls in the basic line-up on the table is and the player who is determined according to the rules to push run (opening break), while pushing the cue ball with the cue tip touches.
There are several options for the end of a frame:
- All object balls were pocketed or a foul was committed while only the black ball was on the table. Since it can only be scored with seven points, it is not necessary to play the last black ball, provided that there is a difference of more than seven points between the players and the sum of the points from the frames of a game or tournament is not relevant . If there is a tie after punching all colors in the endgame , there is still a re-spotted black , i.e. H. the black ball is again in his spot attached and the cue ball must come from a point within the D to be played. The next valuation then decides the frame, possibly also the game or tournament. For this either Black has to be pocketed or a player commits a foul and ends the frame to his disadvantage.
- One of the players gives up the frame and his opponent doesn't insist on playing. To post a frame, the player must be at the table. A player may only give up a frame if he can only win with additional points from fouls by the opponent, i.e. the frame ball has already been punched. Any violation of this rule at official tournaments will be penalized retrospectively. In tournaments in which the sum of the points from the frames is played, the opponent receives the maximum number of points still on the table in addition to his existing score from the frame, whereby all colors that are illegally not on the table, are deemed to be reinstated and counted. If the opponent is awarded the next frame, he receives an additional 147 points.
- After a miss , the opponent decides to repeat the stroke and the player does not succeed in hitting a ball in accordance with the rules in the third attempt from the same position , although he could have played a ball on in full on the direct line. However, the referee must have warned the player after the second failed attempt that the frame will be awarded to the opponent on the third failed attempt.
- If a player uses offensive language or gestures, deliberately and persistently behaves unfairly or otherwise in a non-gentlemanly manner, or if he refuses to continue playing, the referee can award the frame to his opponent or, in the case of particularly serious misconduct, the game, or warn the player that if this is repeated Frame is awarded to his opponent. If a player takes too much time for a shot, the referee first gives him a warning. If the player has already been warned once because of his behavior, the referee must give the opponent the frame, and in the case of particularly serious misconduct, also award the game. If the opponent has already been awarded a frame due to the behavior of the player, he must be awarded if the game is repeated. In tournaments in which the sum of the points from the frames is played, the player loses all points scored so far in the frame and the opponent receives the maximum number of points still on the table in addition to his existing score from the frame, with all colors that are illegally not on the table, are considered to be put back on and are counted. If the opponent is awarded the game, he receives an additional 147 points for each frame not yet played.
- Deviation from this, see: Snooker Shoot-Out .
A frameball is a ball which, by sinking it, increases the score to such an extent that his opponent could only score with additional fouls . In terms of content, the linguistic phrase has generally been used: "He (the inferior) needs / needs snooker" or in English: "He needs snooker now"
Example: The player is 37 points ahead, there are still two red balls on the table , red is on. This means 43 possible points, namely 16 for 2 × red + black, plus 27 in the endgame on the colors . If the player punches a red ball, he has 38 points ahead. But now there are only a maximum of 35 regular points on the table for the opponent . Since he would have to start again with red, even with a clearance he only has 8 for red + black and the 27 points in the endgame. The penultimate red ball now punched on the table was the frame ball. From this point on, the player who is behind in terms of points may now give up the frame prematurely. After a possible foul in the further course of the game, there is no longer a miss .
If the game is decided with this frame , it is also called a match point.
The referee will give free ball if a player snooker after a foul by the opponent. The strict interpretation of the snooker rule is always applied. Thereafter, the cue ball is already considered snooker if no ball can be played with it at its two outermost edges in a straight line. If this is the case, the player may nominate another ball as a ball on to replace the ball that he cannot play freely. This provision is intended to prevent a player from profiting from a foul by deliberately playing a low foul in order to force the opponent to commit a higher foul and / or after the break of the opponent himself to a good starting position for a high break again to have.
If the player sinks the ball nominated as a free ball, points are credited according to the value of the actual ball on, the free ball is placed back on and the game then continues as usual. If the red ball is on and one or more red balls are sunk in addition to the nominated free ball, the player receives points based on the number of punched balls. If, in addition to the free ball, the actual ball on is sunk on the colors in the endgame , only the value of the actual ball on is credited; the free ball is put back on, the actual ball on is not. A combination may also be played in which the free ball is played and the or one of the actual balls is punched on with a corresponding rating. However, the cue ball must always play the free ball first, but may also hit the or one of the actual balls at the same time. If the free ball is not hit first, or if it is hit together with a ball that is not on, this is a foul. It is penalized to the value of the ball on or, if more valuable, the highest ball involved in the foul, but at least 4 points.
It is not allowed to snooker the cue ball behind a free ball. It is a foul that is penalized to the value of the ball on, but at least 4 points. An exception to this rule is when only pink and black are left on the table . In this case, the cue ball can be hidden behind the black one and you snooker on pink.
Example of a free ball situation: The player comes to the table after the opponent has fouled, so he must first sink red, but he cannot fully reach a red directly, but blue is favorable for him. So he nominates blue as red, sinks it and receives one point (the value for red). Blue is put back on his spot and the player continues to play with one color.
Foot on the ground
During each burst of the player always at least a part must touch (= part of the foot) the ground. For this it is sufficient if z. B. only the tip of the shoe visibly touches the ground, even if the player otherwise has to stretch out completely on the table to push. If this is not the case at the moment of the stroke, he commits a foul , which is punished in the amount of the value of the ball on. However, wheelchair users are exempt from this obligation. Small players or children may use aids (e.g. stools).
The foot rail is close to the D or the Baulk-line situated gang on the short side of the table , the players also where the offense at the beginning of frame position. In official tournaments, the players' seats are located behind the footboards at a sufficient distance from the table.
Snooker is a sport that includes fairness and discipline. When playing, the opponent is generally not hindered or distracted. The player who is not on the break therefore stays at a reasonable distance from the table and avoids standing in the player's line of sight at the table, moving or doing other things that could disturb the other player's concentration. Own fouls that the referee could not see and therefore not announce are reported immediately. With a fluke , you apologize to your opponent by lifting your hand slightly. At the beginning and end of a session and before a decision-making frame, people greet each other with a handshake. The winner will also be congratulated with a handshake at the end and after a successful maximum break . In the professional area at official tournaments there are also rules regarding the dress code. Most tournaments are played in standard wardrobe (leather shoes, long dress pants, long-sleeved monochrome shirt, single-breasted sleeveless vest with cut-out front, including a bow tie or, rarely, a tie). Exceptions to this, such as normal sports shoes or the waiver of the fly, are only granted for medical reasons upon presentation of a medical certificate.
If a player does not behave gentlemanly, e.g. For example, by using offensive language or gestures, by deliberately and persistently acting unfairly or by refusing to continue playing, the referee can warn him that the frame will be revoked if he repeats him , or he can give the player the frame right away, in the case of particularly serious misconduct the game , deny it. If a player takes too long to take a shot , the referee first gives him a warning. If the player has already been warned once because of his behavior, the referee must deny him the frame and, in the case of particularly serious misconduct, the game. If the player has already been denied a frame because of his behavior, he must be denied the game in the case of repetition.
The requirements of fairness and discipline are also placed on the audience at official tournaments. Disturbances caused by walking around, restless or loud behavior and other bad habits such as ringing cell phones and disturbing photography will be punished consistently, possibly up to expulsion from the hall.
- Deviation from this, see: Snooker Shoot-Out .
Simultaneous hitting of two balls
The cue ball must in a shock first several object balls hit at the same time, provided that all ball on are. However, if the cue ball touches a ball that is not on at the same time when a ball on is played, this is a foul that is penalized to the value of the ball on or, if more significant, the highest ball involved in the foul, but with at least 4 points . If there is a free ball , the free ball must be among the balls hit first, otherwise this is also a foul that is punished in the same amount.
Auxiliary queues (also known as bridges or colloquially known as "grandmas", English rest) are aids that are available at the table or brought by the referee or player to guide the cue . Due to the size of the snooker table, there are situations in which the player with the Bock hand the game ball can not come close enough without a challenge to commit such. B. not having a foot on the ground or touching balls with the body or clothing. In order to be able to play the white ball in a reasonably controlled manner, the player then uses the attachment at the top of the auxiliary cue as a support point for the cue. With an auxiliary cue, however, a player does not have cue ball control as with the hand control, so he will only use an auxiliary cue if there is no other option. If he has mastered the safe game both as a right- and left-handed player, the use of aids for the push can be significantly reduced.
By far the most frequently used is the simple auxiliary queue (X, cross or crosshead rest). At the top of the shaft it has an x-shaped support in which the cue is guided and which has different support heights depending on the rotation. It is usually also available at the table in a variant with a long shaft. For the X-Rest there are plug-in extensions that can be plugged onto one of the arms of the x and offer increased cue guidance in a V-shape. Special auxiliary cues are the Spider , the Extended Spider and the Swan , as well as the recently developed Hook Rest . If necessary, auxiliary cues can be provided with additional extensions, including telescopes that can be adjusted to the appropriate length. Appropriate extensions are also available for the player's queue. All auxiliary queues and extensions used in professional tournaments must be in a form approved by the WPBSA .
The player usually takes the simple X-rest out of the holder under the head or foot board , the long X-rest, the special auxiliary cues and the telescopic extensions are handed to him on request by the referee. Until the execution of impact the player may nevertheless not use auxiliary queue even when already on the table ready laid aids still change your mind and another or possibly. The referee then clears all auxiliary cues and extensions, including the X-rest, back into place. Touching a ball with the auxiliary cue is a foul. It is penalized for the value of the touched ball or, if more valuable, the ball on , but at least 4 points. The player should therefore hold the auxiliary cue firmly during the shot so that he can quickly take it off the table again if the cue ball or an object ball runs back in his direction. For this reason, as well as because there is also the possibility of multiple use directly one after the other, the referee never picks up an auxiliary cue himself from the table, but waits until the player gives it to him again after use.
Hit-and-hope is called in snooker a shock , in which the player either no plan is, from a Snooker out to play a meaningful continuation or because the table image is so open that nowhere more space for a reasonable safety exists or just another risky continuation remains. He then hits harder than usual and then hopes for a positive result. (Motto: "Push and hope").
The Hook Rest is an auxiliary queue that has only recently been developed and recently approved by the WPBSA for official tournaments. It is used when the player needs an auxiliary cue to push the ball , but there are one or more object balls behind the ball, viewed in the direction of impact , which prevent the placement of the simple auxiliary cue (X-rest). The hook rest works like the X rest, because it has the same x-shaped support at the top, but the last approx. 30 cm of the shaft are arched or angular so that the object balls behind the game ball are bypassed by the auxiliary cue . The prerequisite for using the hook rest is that there is enough space between the game ball and the object balls to place the support cue and to be able to guide the player cue at a low height without touching the object balls. In certain cases, it is therefore an alternative to the Spider , Extended Spider or Swan , which are more difficult to use and in which game ball control is more limited.
Jump balls, so-called jump shots, are prohibited in snooker. The cue ball must as long as he one on ball has not touched regularly meet, no other ball skip. If that happens, it is a foul that is penalized to the value of the ball on, but at least 4 points. For a jump shot, it is not necessary that the object ball is skipped over in the middle, it is sufficient if any part of the ball is crossed by the game ball. If the cue-ball bounces during the kick and touches a ball without first crossing another ball, the kick was legal. Likewise, the cue ball may jump over other balls after first touching a ball. The cue ball may also skip the played ball after it has hit it correctly and then touched either a board or another ball.
A kick or "bad contact" is a phenomenon that occurs occasionally, in that the balls briefly "stick" to each other and thus "climb". The cause is soiling of the balls with fibers and chalk residue. This negative and sometimes clearly audible effect is particularly noticeable when playing with spin , as the white ball sticks to the colored ball for a while before it ricochets. This shifts the point of impact and can make the outcome of the push unpredictable. The cue ball loses a lot of its rotation and speed. A kick often leads to the failure of a hole attempt or to a poor placement of the ball. After a kick, the player usually asks the referee to clean the balls in question before the next kick .
If a player touches one or more of the balls lying on the table with part of his clothing during a game action , he is committing a so-called clothing foul. The opponent is awarded foul points to the value of the highest value ball involved or, if higher value, the ball on, but at least 4 points. If a dress foul is committed after a red ball has been punched and before a color has been nominated, the opponent receives 7 foul points. Dress fouls are usually reported immediately by the players themselves, especially if the referee was unable to see the offense due to his observation position.
The three colored balls yellow, green and brown, which have their spots on the Baulk-line at the foot of the table , are informally referred to as the small colors because of their low value (yellow 2, green 3, brown 4 points).
A combination, also known as a plant, is the playing of a ball , which then hits another ball and sinks that other ball. Both the played ball and the punched ball must be ball on , which is why a combination of two balls is only possible with red, but not with colored balls, unless a free ball is used in the endgame on the colors to represent the actual ball on to punch. Combinations are also possible with more than two balls, then also with the participation of a color in the sequence red (or free ball) -color-red or in the endgame on the colors in the sequence free ball-color-color.
When playing on red, another, but very seldom played, combination variant is possible, which is called "cannon": The cue ball is deflected by the red ball or free ball hit first so that it then hits a second red or the color on and sunk them. The name Cannon (German carom) is an English term borrowed from carom billiards .
Example of a combination with colored balls: Only the balls green to black are left on the table and you have snookered on green after a foul by your opponent . The green ball is very close to a pocket and is hidden by the blue ball. Then you can play blue as a free ball and use it to punch green. The green ball does not come back on the table as the actual color in the endgame . However, if only the blue ball or both balls (green and blue) are punched, then blue, as a free ball, is put back on. In each of these cases, however, there is only a simple point evaluation in the amount of the actual color on.
The head band is close to the Black Spot preferred band on the short side of the table . In official tournaments, the marker , the large display boards and the movable television cameras are located on the side of the headband with sufficient distance from the table .
The billiard chalk is an important tool for players to use in their gaming device, the cue . Herewith the cue tip is bitter orange called before each shock intensively to increase the friction rubbed to the in transmitting the impact energy plaything that strictly required for the desired running and Abprallrichtung Effet mitzugeben. The chalking causes contamination of the balls and the cloth of the table during the game. The balls are therefore cleaned regularly by the referee or at the request of the players in order to avoid kicks . The cloth is also rubbed off by the players with the flat of their hands from time to time in order to reduce unwanted ball movements due to dirt. The billiard chalk is available in different colors. In snooker, however , only green chalk is used due to the green cloth on the tables in order to avoid larger visible marks on the playing surface.
Each player has their own chalk cube in their pants or vest pocket. With Disabilities by the inserted cube during complicated joints where players stretched out on the table lay the utensil may also to the gang are stored. If the player drops the chalk on the table and touches one or more balls, this is a foul , which is penalized to the value of the highest ball touched or, if more important, the ball on, but with at least 4 points.
It is not permitted to put the chalk on a board in such a way that it could be used as a guide for a game over boards. This use of the chalk dice would be a foul punished with 7 points.
Lag is the name of the elimination process before the start of each frame in a snooker shoot-out . To do this , the two players involved, who are standing next to each other at the table that has been set up beforehand , push each other out of the Baulk line with their own white ball , one to the left and the other to the right of the small colors , towards the headband . The player of his ball in the judgment of the referee for the next footstring deposits , wins the lag and determines who starts by both parties.
The term “long ball”, which is not precisely defined, is usually used when the cue ball to a ball on or a ball to a pocket covers more than half of the long side of the table .
The word marker has two meanings in snooker:
For one thing , marker is often used as a short form for the ball marker .
On the other hand, marker is also the name of the referee assistant that is used at official tournaments. He operates the displays on the so-called hawk-eye , sets the score on the display board and uses camera technology to help the table referee on the television tables to restore the previous game situation if a shot has to be repeated after a miss or for any other reason . If there is no secretary of his own , he is also responsible for the match protocol .
According to the snooker rules, a match (tournament) is an agreed or prescribed number of games .
One is sometimes called match point frame ball called when the associated frame at the same time the game chosen could.
A maximum break is a total clearance in which the maximum possible number of points on the table at the beginning of the frame is punched. To do this, the player must punch the black ball in a break after each of the 15 red balls , which results in a total of 15 × 8 = 120 points and then correctly punch all colored balls in the endgame for the colors , which is another 27 counters and added together at the end Results in 147 points. Is there a 16 Reds clearance , i. H. a total clearance, in which the player also punches a free ball as a substitute red followed by a color at the beginning of the break , is required for a maximum break even after the free ball black as the highest color. In this case the value of the maximum break is 1 (free ball) + 7 (black) + 147 (“normal” maximum) = 155 points. Such a 155 break has only been achieved in a 2005 training match by Jamie Cope . The fastest maximum break to date during a tournament was achieved by Ronnie O'Sullivan in his game against Mick Price at the 1997 World Snooker Championship on April 21, 1997 in 5 minutes and 8 seconds or in 5 minutes and 20 seconds.
In professional tournaments, a special bonus is usually awarded for playing maximum breaks and the player is congratulated by the opponent and the referee with a handshake.
For games or sessions of more than seven frames, there is a break after every four frames played, the midsession interval, with a length of 15 minutes. During this time, the players can relax and collect or play at a training table. The tables can be cleaned if necessary . The historical origin lies in the fact that in the past the players were also involved in the income from the drinks sales and during this break the audience should be given the opportunity to buy drinks.
The miss is determined by the referee . It is always given in conjunction with a foul if the referee believes that either there was an easier solution that would have avoided the foul, or that the player did not attempt a correct shot according to his ability . A sure indicator of a miss is if a player plays over boards and does not score, although there would have been a direct possibility (without boards), or if the cue ball is played at a markedly slow speed during a direct pass and thus misses the ball on .
After a miss, the person being fouled (as with any foul) can not only decide whether he or she should continue playing from the new position, but also has the option to demand that the previous game situation be restored and the person who fouled the shot from this must repeat. It is not crucial here that all balls are put back into their exact starting position, but that the basic difficulty of the shot is built up again. For the most accurate restoration possible, the players also participate with hints. The installed camera and recording technology is also used when games are played at the television tables. To do this, the marker , the assistant referee, superimposes the images of the game situations “before-after” on the display and thus helps the referee to set up. Here, even complicated table pictures are actually restored congruently in a short time. Finally, the referee asks both players whether the situation created is sufficient, and if everyone agrees, the game will continue.
A special situation arises when a player plays multiple foul, though one on Ball snookered without could be alluding directly to, for example, a favorable shelf to create. In this case, the referee gives a warning after the second miss that the frame will be lost if the same mistake is repeated. If the player commits such a foul for the third time, he loses the entire frame (“three-miss rule”).
A miss may not be given if one of the two players, before or due to the foul, is as many or more points behind than the maximum achievable points are still on the table .
The miss does not increase the number of penalty points awarded for a foul. It's just an extra warning to the player, so to speak. The point of the miss is that the fouler cannot gain any advantages from the new (irregular) game situation.
Except in the case of point differences that cannot be made up without snooker , fouls in which the ball was missed and the ball does not fall into a pocket are always declared as misses in professional snooker with very rare exceptions. With world-class players it would hardly be possible to differentiate between an accidental and a tactical foul, which is why the miss rule is applied very rigidly here. Since the players are in fact assumed to deliberately play a foul with every given miss, this approach is not undisputed, but is retained in the absence of an alternative.
There is no division into a women's and men's class in snooker. Both in the players 'and referees' areas it all depends on the individual abilities of the respective person and there is also indiscriminate "mixed" competition against each other and evaluated.
The red or colored balls that are played with the white cue ball are called object balls . At the beginning of a frame there are 21 object balls on the table : 15 red balls and the 6 colors yellow, green, brown, blue, pink and black. The red balls are worth 1 point each, yellow is worth 2, green 3, brown 4, blue 5, pink 6 and black 7 points. Which of the object balls must be hit first with the next stroke in a game situation or which may be punched depends on which ball or balls are each ball on . For a ball on that was pocketed in accordance with the rules, i.e. without committing a foul , the player concerned receives points equal to the value of the ball, in the case of a free ball, the value of the actual ball on. If a corresponding ball bounces out of a pocket , it is considered not to have been perforated and the player receives no points for it, even if this happens because the pocket is overloaded. The object balls are before the start of the frame or in a re-rack , as well as z. T. during the frame according to the rules for placing the red balls or placing (mocking) the colored balls (again). Punched or for other reasons, such as. B. Ball off the table , colored balls that are no longer on the table come back on the table again and again during the frame. The only exception: a ball with holes in the colors in the endgame , provided it was not a free ball. Red balls are not put back on, apart from rare exceptional cases.
That touched down or replacing the balls is the sole responsibility of the arbitrator . Any contact with the object balls by the players with the body, the hand, the cue or auxiliary cue or clothing, as well as by the chalk dice is a foul that is worth at least the ball on or, if higher, the highest ball involved in the foul but is punished with 4 points. This also applies if a ball that is not on is hit or punched first or at the same time as a ball on, or a free ball is not hit first, or if a ball bounces off the table. If no object ball is hit, this is a foul worth the ball on, but at least 4 points.
A penalty in English is any rule violation that is not a foul , i.e. This means that it has no effect on which player is on the break, i.e. may take the next stroke.
The bitter orange is the tip of the cue that transfers the impact energy to the cue ball . It is the part that is chalked in before each impact to increase friction. It is made of leather and is usually glued on with quick-hardening adhesive, so that it can be quickly changed or repaired even during the game if it is damaged. In addition, so-called reamers are used to ensure that the chalk is better accepted by the bitter orange. In doing so, they roughen the bumped, compressed and thus smooth leather again. Replacing the bitter orange during a frame is a disadvantage for the player, as it is only “played back” optimally after a certain time.
Potten (potting) and pocketing
Potten refers to the rule-compliant punching of a ball on . In English, pocketing denotes the illegal punching of a ball , i.e. the punching of the game ball or a ball not on, but also of a ball on if a foul was committed during the stroke .
In official matches (tournaments), a secretary is often used as part of the game management in addition to the referee and his assistant, the marker . The keeper of the minutes notes every stroke , every foul and all points scored, as well as the breaks . If there is no clerk of his own, this is the job of the marker.
Bunch (red bunch)
A group is a collection of closely spaced red balls on the table . Because during the game with a bunch without a convenient storage of the game ball hardly a real hole chance arises, dissolving it to continue the break even at one of the previous shocks with a split on. Red groups often arise when playing safetys alternately . Since the red ball is always on at the start of the frame or after a re-rack at the kick-off , the cue ball necessarily goes into or at least to the red group of the basic set-up of balls with this first kick.
In snooker, cues from 140 to 150 cm in length are usually used. According to the official snooker rules, the cue must not be shorter than 914 mm (3 ft) and not deviate from the traditional tapered shape, with the bitter orange attached to the thin end. If necessary, the extensions and telescopes of different lengths used for the queue must also have a form approved by the WPBSA . The use of a non-standard-compliant queue represents a foul that is punished with the value of the current ball on , but at least with 4 points.
If the players have "got stuck" and no meaningful further development is in sight, both players can agree to let the referee set the balls again. The referee can also offer the players a re-rack if he thinks the frame is in a stalemate or is heading for one. If a player does not agree, the game should continue under the condition that the situation changes within a period of time to be determined by the referee, usually three more kicks per player or team. If the situation does not change fundamentally during this period, the referee must restart the frame. If points have been scored by then, they expire and the frame starts again at 0: 0 without showing up in the statistics. Several re-racks are also possible in one frame. A re-rack is always triggered by the player who also initiated the original initiation of the frame, or if the wrong player started the frame who should have executed it. In the case of a doubles (four-handed snooker), the order of play established at the beginning of the frame is maintained. If a stalemate occurs during a re-spotted black situation, only the black ball is put back on its spot and the player who made the first push on the re-spotted black starts again from ball in Hand .
If there is a tie at the end of a frame , there is a so-called re-spotted black. To do this, the black ball is placed on its spot again . The winner of a subsequent coin toss decides who starts with ball in hand . In the case of re-spotted black, analogous to the last black in the endgame, there is only one single rating for the colors : either the player who sinks the black correctly wins, or a player commits a foul by e.g. B. punctures the ball or misses the black ball and thus loses the frame. The same procedure is followed in the event of a tie at the end of a game or match , in which the total score from all frames decides the winner of the game or match.
A safety is a safety impact. It is played when a player sees no opportunity to punch a ball on or when he needs foul points from the opponent in order to still be able to win the frame because the frame ball has already been punched. A frame is almost always opens with a safety as it the impetus no hole option for a red ball is, except with a very rare fluke .
With a safety, the player tries to leave the opponent as difficult as possible on the table, i.e. to place the game ball and the ball (s) when the opponent takes over the break in such a way that the opponent has no possibility of a hole or is even forced to play a foul . To achieve this, the player depending on the situation in several ways: It can try the game ball as far as possible on off the next ball lay . He tries to put the cue ball and / or the ball on as close as possible to a board, whereby the cue ball control and the ability to pass the ball on are very limited. In the best case, he also succeeds in hiding the cue ball behind a ball that is not on in such a way that the opponent is snookered on the ball . If the cue ball is very close to a ball that cannot be punched from this position, he can only tap it lightly to leave the opponent in the same difficult situation. If safetys are played too often in succession by both parties without any notable changes to the table, which is particularly common in the latter case, the referee will encourage the players to take more active action at the table by announcing a re-rack . The multiple, mutual playing Safetys while there are still several red balls are on the table, often leads to the formation of platoons red balls.
If there is a possibility of a hole, but the risk is high that it will not succeed, a player sometimes plays a combination of hole attempt and safety, a so-called shot to nothing .
In snooker, the referee at the table has an active role. Together with, if available, the marker , the recorder and, if necessary, other people, he forms the game management .
First of all, as in other sports, he is responsible for monitoring general rules and principles. He is the sole judge of fair and unfair play and has the freedom to make decisions in the interests of fair play in situations that are not sufficiently clarified in the rules. He makes the verbal announcements during the game, e.g. B. whoever starts the frame counts the running points and breaks , checks and explains touching ball , issues and announces fouls and possible misses and ensures an overall undisturbed atmosphere when playing in front of an audience at tournaments. He is not allowed to give the players any information about the prescribed course of the game, e.g. B. which ball is on or when exactly the frame ball is reached. Players with color ametropia (e.g. Peter Ebdon ) can, however, indicate the color of a particular ball on request. During the game and especially during the push , he monitors the mandatory contact with the ground (toe is sufficient) by the player, pays attention to any dress fouls and the correct execution of the push as a whole, such as the hit of a ball on or that no balls fall that are not on. If the referee has not noticed an incident, he can use the statements of the marker , other members of the game management or the spectators who have the best view, as well as camera / video recordings of the event to support his decision.
But he is also responsible for setting the balls at the beginning of each frame . During the frame, as long as there are still red balls on the table , he puts the fallen colors, and in the endgame , free balls that have fallen to the colors and colors that were not on again on the corresponding spot and keeps the ones that are frequently used depending on the course of the game Free pockets by shifting the balls into other pockets. In the case of colored balls, the referee only announces the number of points after he has correctly placed the ball and only then releases play again. The announcement of points for red balls is only made after it is clear to him that no significant changes will be made until the balls have rested. At the end of a break , the announcement is made in the following way: ... (player name and number of points scored) ... and if sufficient points are achieved or the opposing player gives a short nod to indicate that he has lost the frame - .. .and the frame ... . If the referee also decides to miss after a foul, he will, at the request of the fouled player, restore the previous table situation as precisely as possible in its basic difficulty in order to allow the fouler to repeat the same stroke. In addition, in the event of a foul, he must check whether the fouled player has snookered and, in this case, also award a free ball.
The by constantly Einkreiden of the game Pomeranzen contamination occurring at the balls are cleaned regularly by the referee by the carried by it slightly damp white cotton gloves when requested by the players. Only in exceptional cases , for example when a ball falls from the table to the floor, can he (and must) check and clean the ball without being asked. When playing with the auxiliary cues the referee interacts with supportive: The small simple auxiliary queue (balance) is the player after he has even lifted off the table, removed and, in its bracket, which it is drawn from one of the bands hooked again. If colored balls have to be put back on, this is done and the player has to put down the auxiliary cue himself. The referee himself fetches the larger auxiliary cues, including telescopic extensions, that the player may request from the brackets, places them on the player's table and, after use, puts them back in the appropriate storage on the table. He or the marker should, at the player's request, move and hold away a source of light that is obstructing the player, and are permitted to come to the aid of disabled players as appropriate.
Schnabel is the part of the cue from the pomeranian to the buck . If, due to the game situation, the tip of the cue protrudes longer than usual over the buck, it is called a "long beak".
A session is a section of several frames played one after the other in a game . From games Best of 17 - i.e. with nine frames to be won - these are divided into two (or more) sessions. The 1st session has a predetermined number of frames to be played. For sessions with more than 7 frames, there is also the midsession interval , an approx. 15-minute break, after four frames . It is possible, depending on the draw of the game partners or the order of play and the schedule in a tournament, that the players and also the referee have to contest two sessions on one day. Depending on the course of the game, e.g. For example, with a white wash , entire sessions can be canceled. The final of the snooker world championship z. B. is played with the maximum possible number of 35 frames in four sessions, spread over two days.
There is no general time limit for a push . Until the ball has been touched, the action may be canceled, changed, assessed or rethought several times. An auxiliary queue can also be laid out and then not used or replaced by another. However, if the referee is of the opinion that a player is deliberately delaying time, he will issue a warning. If the player has already been cautioned for this or any other non- gentlemanly behavior, the referee must award the opponent the frame, and in particularly severe cases also the game. If the opponent has already been awarded a frame for this reason, he must be awarded if the game is repeated.
In a snooker shoot-out , the shot times are limited to 15 seconds in the first 5 minutes and to 10 seconds in the second 5 minutes. Exceeding this is considered a foul , which is punished with 5 points and ball in hand for the opponent.
Shot to nothing
A "shot to nothing" (in German about "shot into the blue") describes a combination of safety and the attempt to sink a ball on . The player plays the ball on so that the storage of the game ball after the shock is safe as possible, regardless of whether the ball on was sunk or not. If the ball is pocketed, the player continues to play; if it does not fall, the safety function comes into play and it is the opponent's turn. A shot to nothing is used almost exclusively when red ball is on, placing it on a color is secondary. If the ball is punched , there is often at least the option to snooker the opponent on the remaining reds . This form of push is mainly used in difficult situations and the attempt to simply punch a ball in a pocket poses too high a risk.
As snooker is defined as the situation when a direct impact in a straight line on each ball on at least one ball is, which is not on, entirely or partially prevented d. that is, balls are not on between the ball and the cue ball . At least one ball on must be full on both sides, i.e. H. both left and right be as thin as possible to play. If it is partially covered, the player can hit it directly, but not at any point and is therefore restricted in his play. So it's a snooker. This also applies to a ball-in-hand situation, if the white player is prevented from playing a full ball on from any position within or on the line of the D. There is no snooker if the cue ball is prevented from fully playing a ball on by the rounded part of a board, i.e. H. either the ball on or the game ball is in a pocket inlet. This precise definition of snooker is instrumental in determining whether a player who has been fouled will receive a free ball .
It is said that a player who is lying behind "needs snooker" when there are no longer enough points on the table to compensate for the opponent's lead on his own. In this case he needs additional points. Strictly speaking, it is also possible to catch up without snooker by accidentally fouling the leader (e.g. if the ball falls). If a player already “needs” snooker, no player will miss a foul . The exception to this is the situation that a player has missed a ball on which he was able to play in full on a straight path and does not hit a ball on again when the stroke is repeated . A miss must be given here, regardless of the point difference.
A rare special case is an 'impossible Snooker "in which the game ball as from other spheres and / or the band is narrowed, that at the meeting of the ball on necessarily a foul is played. Here the player simply has to play in the speed and direction of the ball on as if he wanted to hit him and gets a foul, but without a miss. So that the player does not gain any advantages, the opponent can let him continue playing the picture that emerged (as after every foul). In fact, an impossible snooker is always created by a fluke .
When split, the separation is called a platoons of closely spaced red balls , Scan play them and to place lochbar. For this purpose, the cue ball is pushed in such a way that it opens the crowd either directly or when moving on after a ball has been played on . A split is always necessary if the player does not have any more free red balls to punch, but he still wants to continue the break and because the position for a split seems more favorable to him than for an exit with a safety . Since the first shot of a frame necessarily goes into or at least to the bunch of red balls, the kick is usually a split.
Spider and extended spider
The Spider ( "Spider") is an auxiliary queue that is used when the player for pushing the game ball requires an auxiliary queue, but in shock direction viewed behind the plaything of one object ball is over which the queue must be done about it and the the placement of the simple auxiliary cue (X-rest) prevented. Instead of an X-shaped support, the spider has a plate at the top that has three recesses at the top for guiding the cue (one in the middle, one on the left and one on the right) and two long legs. In tournaments, in addition to the standard spider, players usually have a spider with a long shaft (long spider) at their disposal.
If there are several object balls behind the cue ball that have to be bridged, the extended spider is used in addition to the Swan . With the extended Spider, the plate with the guides for the cue is shifted in front of the level of the legs. Compared to the Swan, the extended Spider is usually a little higher and extends significantly longer beyond the point of contact on the table . Like the Swan, the extended Spider is only used when it is unavoidable, as it restricts game ball control significantly more than with the simple auxiliary cue or the Spider. Some players prefer a combination of Spider and X-Rest instead of the extended Spider (or Swan). To do this, the X-rest is placed in the cue guide of the spider and pushed as far forward as required according to the situation on the table, whereby the shafts of the two auxiliary cues lie on top of one another and are held together with one hand.
In some cases the Hook Rest is also an alternative to the (extended) Spider and Swan, as it enables better game ball control.
According to the snooker rules, a game is an agreed or specified number of frames . One or more games form a match (tournament). The number of frames is usually odd, as snooker is mostly played according to the best-of mode, according to which the winner of the game is whoever has won more than half of the frames. The exception to this is e.g. B. the Premier League Snooker , where a tie is possible with six frames to be played. In some tournaments, however, the sum of the points from all frames of a game or tournament determines the victory, not the number of frames won. Games with a large number of frames are divided into several sessions . For games or sessions with more than seven frames, there is also a short break after four frames, the midsession interval . In the English-speaking world, game is sometimes used synonymously with frame.
The white ball is referred to as a game ball (cue ball in English) . He may, in each shock always the only one with the queue are taken and must then first thing each one ball at a free-ball absolutely the free-ball, get together, and this also ties can happen. In certain situations it comes to ball-in-hand scheme, in which the player's cue ball anywhere within the D can place. Any falling of the white ball into a pocket , missing the ball on, jump shots , incorrectly playing from ball in hand or touching the white ball with the cue multiple times is a foul that is worth the ball on, but is punished with at least 4 points. For Bumping (push shots) or ball-by-table on are situations foul points in the value of the ball or, if higher quality, the highest at the challenge involved Balls, but also at least 4 points due. The cue ball is the ball that the referee has to clean most often during the game.
The referee is responsible for directing a game together with, if available, his assistant - the marker - the keeper of the minutes and, if necessary, other persons.
The 6 marked touchdown points of the colored balls on the snooker table on which the colors before the start of a frame , at a re-rack or after they have been punched (except for the respective ball on the colors in the endgame ) are referred to as spots. to be put back on. If another ball is on the respective point during the frame, the rule for occupied spots applies . The spots are all on the central axis of the table between the head and foot board and / or the Baulk-line and have the colloquial name of the color.
The following applies to the colored balls:
- Yellow spot: On the right corner of the D (intersection of the semicircle - 11½ inches (= 292.1 mm) radius) - with the Baulk line; this is 29 inches (= 736.6 mm) from the foot rail away)
- Green spot: On the left corner of the D as seen from the footboard
- Brown spot: In the middle of the Baulk line, i.e. H. at the intersection of the Baulk-line and the long central axis of the table
- Blue spot: In the middle of the table, i.e. equidistant from the head and foot board, or from the right and left middle pocket (also called the center spot)
- Pink spot: In the middle between the "blue" spot and the headband (also called the pyramid spot, since the 15 red balls are placed at the beginning of the frame or in the case of a re-rack in the form of a triangle directly next to the pink ball)
- Black spot: Between the pink spot and the headband, 12¾ inches (= 324 mm) from the headband
A shot is considered taken when the player touches the ball with the bitter orange of his cue . Finished the impact is only when all balls have stopped all aid ( auxiliary queues , extensions) from the table were removed, the possibly required re- put (spotting) colored balls is complete and the referee points and / or challenge announced and so that the further course of the frame has been released or ended. Carrying out a shot before the previous one is over represents a foul that is penalized with the value of the ball on or, if more significant, the highest ball involved in the foul, but at least 4 points. Occupied and with as inadmissible the same challenge points is a Duch impact (push shot). Multiple touches of the game ball with the cue and a jump shot are also fouls; they are penalized to the value of the ball on, but at least 4 points.
- Special types of shots, see ball techniques
Striker and Non-Striker
In English, the striker is the player who has to play or is currently playing, i.e. the player who is currently at the table or who has to come to the table according to the rules. The player remains the striker until he has completed his break and the referee is convinced that he has finally left the table. Non-striker refers to the player who is currently not at the table, i.e. not playing. If the non-striker has to leave the room, e.g. B. for going to the toilet, he can appoint a deputy who represents his interests and can complain about fouls if necessary . However, he must tell the referee the person concerned before leaving the table. The terms Striker and Non-Striker are z. Sometimes also used in German-speaking countries.
Sudden death blue ball shoot out
The sudden death blue ball shoot out is a special rule for the shoot-out variant : If a game is tied after 10 minutes, attempts are made alternately to punch the blue ball on its spot out of the D. The blue ball must be punched directly, i. H. it shall have no gang touch with the exception of the rounded pocket inlet of the pocket into which it falls, otherwise it does not count as punched. The player who won the lag at the beginning of the game can decide who will play first. It is then pushed alternately by the two players in rounds. As soon as a player has punched blue once more than the opponent with the same number of shots , he has won.
The swan, also known as swan neck, is an auxiliary cue that is used when the player needs an auxiliary cue to push the ball , but there are several object balls behind the ball when viewed in the direction of impact , over which the cue is located must be passed over it and which prevent the placement of the simple auxiliary cue with an x-shaped support (X-rest). The swan gets its name from its characteristic shape. It has two long legs that form an upside-down U, and a long neck that is slightly upward at the end and extends beyond the level of the legs. At the end of the neck is a fork over which the cue is passed. Compared to the extended Spider, it extends less far beyond the touchdown point on the table and is usually less high. The Swan and the extended Spider are only used when it is unavoidable, as they restrict the control of the game ball even more than with the simple auxiliary cue or the Spider. Some players prefer a combination of Spider and X-Rest instead of the Swan (or extended Spider). To do this, the X-rest is placed in the cue guide of the spider and pushed as far forward as required according to the situation on the table, whereby the shafts of the two auxiliary cues lie on top of one another and are held together with one hand.
In some cases, the Hook Rest is an alternative to the Swan and extended Spider, as it allows better game ball control.
After a game or in a midsession interval , the tables are cleaned and possibly also repaired. This is the job of the table fitter (table caretaker or fitter) at official tournaments in professional snooker. These cleaning jobs include brushing the cloth to remove chalk residue and aligning the cloth mesh to ensure that the balls run smoothly . But also necessary repairs such as the replacement of boards or the cloth and the assembly and dismantling of tables are part of the work of the table fitter.
Pockets or pockets are the six openings in the edges of the snooker table into which the balls are sunk. A distinction is made between the two middle pockets on the long sides at the height of the blue spot and the four corner pockets. The two corner pockets above the black ball are known as the head pockets or the “black” pots or pockets. The two corner pockets below the D , from which the kick is made, are called the foot pockets. Due to the proximity to the spots of the colored balls, the foot pockets are also commonly referred to as the “yellow” or “green” bag. The outlets of the pocket openings on the underside of the table are open at the top so that the balls can be easily removed, v. a. during a frame , e.g. B. to put the colors back on or to redistribute red balls from a full bag to other bags. With a diameter of approx. 90 mm, the pockets are smaller than those of pool tables . In contrast to these, they also have rounded inlets, so that in snooker a ball that is not played very precisely can be thrown back onto the playing surface more easily than with the straight, angled inlets of the pool table. For the exact shape and dimensions of the bags, which are binding for official tournaments, there are templates created by the WPBSA , one each for the corner pockets and one for the center pockets, which have been changed from time to time in the past.
The force of the shock is called the speed. In addition to the direction of attack, it is the most important element in billiards and snooker. Especially when playing a safety , the selected speed decides the actual safety of the placement of the game ball . You choose when playing the ball on an insufficient pace and the cue ball does not reach him because of that, there is due to the weak shock inevitably to challenge a failure . On the other hand , if the speed is too high, the balls , especially when the table is still full , rattle around uncontrollably and create unfavorable table images.
In addition, the use of the correct impact strength is essential to achieve the desired spin of the cue ball , especially when playing a bow ball , as well as when playing a re-mocked black , where the most important thing is the safe placement of the cue ball.
A snooker table is officially 11 ft ( English feet ) 8.5 in (inches) long and 5 ft 10 in wide with a tolerance of ± 0.5 in (3556 mm × 1778 mm each ± 13 mm) measured between the inner edges of the boards , and is therefore significantly larger than other pool tables. The height of the table from the floor to the top of the boards is 2 ft 10 in (864 mm) with a tolerance of ± 0.5 in (13 mm). The height of the boards, which is not standardized, is usually approx. 40 mm, which results in a height of the playing area of approx. 82-83 cm. Depending on the design, snooker tables can weigh up to 1500 kg. It consists of a slab of slate up to 5 cm thick, which consists of several closely joined parts and is covered with a usually green woolen cloth made of worsted yarn. Before the start of the game, the table surface is brushed by the Baulk-line in the direction of the black spot , which causes a small but noticeable difference in the running speed and the rolling resistance of the balls : In the direction of the pile, the rolling resistance is slightly lower and thus the running speed is higher. The playing area is bounded by boards made of cloth-clad natural rubber strips . At each corner and in the middle of the long bands there are a total of six pockets , each approx. 90 mm in diameter. The pocket inlets are rounded in contrast to the straight, angled edges on pool tables. High-quality tables are also provided with a heater in the substructure for constant conditions during longer playing times. Brackets for holding cues and auxiliary cues are located under the boards . A simple auxiliary cue (X-rest) can usually be found on the head and foot board , under the long boards mostly extensions, cues and X-rests with a long shaft. At tournament tables there is still a frame under the table facing the footboard in which telescopic extensions and special auxiliary cues such as the Spider , Long Spider, Extended Spider and Swan can be accommodated.
With a total clearance all balls lying on the table at the beginning of the frame are correctly punched in a break . If at the beginning of the break to 15x red + color + all six colors in the endgame , a free ball as a substitute red and another color are added to the colors , this is also referred to as a 16 reds clearance . If the maximum possible number of points (147 or 155 points) is punched, in which every red ball or the free ball is always followed by black, there is also a maximum break . The so far only attested highest possible total clearance with 155 points was played by Jamie Cope in a training match in 2005, the highest total clearance in an official tournament match Jamie Burnett in 2004 with 148 points.
If the white cue ball touches an object ball before the impact , there is regularly the risk of penetration . Therefore, in this case, the player must play white away from the object ball in question without it moving due to the push . If the player does not do this and the object ball moves, this is a penetration and thus a foul . However, this does not apply if the player plays away from him and he still moves, e.g. B. by a table mistake. If the cue ball touches an object ball that is not ball on , the player must then hit a ball on first. If the cue ball touches an object ball that is ball on according to the rules or has been nominated as ball on by the player, it is a touching ball. The player has then already fulfilled the requirement of hitting the ball or a ball first and only needs to play away from the object ball. Therefore, in appropriate situations, the referee carefully checks whether the cue ball touches the ball or an object ball, the ball is on. To do this, he usually holds the palm of his hand just above the object balls in question in order to be able to better recognize the situation through the darkening. If there is a touching ball, he communicates this with the announcement “It's touching ball!” And, if applicable, shows which ball or balls are touched by the game ball. If the color is on and the cue ball touches one or more colored balls, the player must first nominate a color (except in the endgame on the colors ), or if necessary a free ball (in the endgame). The referee does not indicate balls that are not on. On request, however, he must inform the player whether the cue ball does not touch a ball.
If a stationary object ball does not touch the cue ball during the referee's examination, but does so later, before the kick, the balls will be returned to their previous position. This also applies the other way around with a touching ball.
The requirements that must be met in the various situations are:
- Red should be played, White is press Red: In this case it is necessary only on the press are located weggespielt Reds. Another red ball can be hit and punched. A color may also be hit, but not punched. The latter is a foul that is penalized for the value of the perforated color, but at least 4 points.
- Red must be played, white is pressed against color: In this case, the color lying in the press must be played away and a red ball or possibly a free ball must be hit first.
- Color must be played, white is next to red: In this case, red must be played away and color on must be hit first.
- Color has to be played, white is close to color: You can nominate the color lying in the press as color on (except in the endgame) or possibly as a free ball (in the endgame) and then only need to play away from this color. Other colors and red balls may hit, but they may not be punched, except for the actual color on in Free Ball. However, if you nominate a different color than color on or possibly a free ball, or if another color is on in the endgame and you don't have a free ball, then the color lying in the press must play away and the color on or the free ball first to be hit.
A white wash is the term used to describe the loss of a game without having won a single frame ("to zero defeat"). For the player concerned this is a disgrace, for the opponent a sign of his playful superiority. Due to a white wash , entire previously scheduled sessions can be canceled.
- List of known snook referees
- List of collision terms
- List of winners in ranked snooker tournaments
- List of Snooker Main Tour tournaments
- List of snooker players with at least a hundred century breaks
- List of world champions in snooker
- List of world number one in snooker
- Snooker Hall of Fame
- Maximum break statistics
- According to official information from the World Association and the Guinness Book of World Records 5:08 minutes; the widespread indication of 5:20 minutes is based on different evaluations of the TV recording.