The Parzen (Latin Parcae ) are the three goddesses of fate in Roman mythology , corresponding to the three moirs of Greek mythology . You can act together or individually; together they influence the thread of life .
The Parzen are called Nona (ninth), Decima (tenth) and Parca (midwife), instead of Parca the name Morta was also used in Roman literature . Their names indicate their original meaning as the goddesses of birth, with Nona and Decima referring to the months of a normal pregnancy. In the course of the Interpretatio Romana , they were adapted to the Greek Moiren and thus reinterpreted as goddesses of fate. Nona spins the thread of life, Decima decides on the fate of life, Morta cuts the thread of life.
In mythology there is the fata scribunda , i.e. fate, which is thought of in writing in the form of the Parzen. This letter can go so far that the Parzes become, as it were, Jupiter's secretaries . They also keep an archive in which Jupiter's will is recorded on ore tablets. Just like the Greek gods, the Roman gods were also subject to the fate personified by the Parzen .
In the literature
The Parzen motif has remained alive since ancient poetry. They are mentioned in almost all early, high and late medieval mythographies ( Fulgentius , Isidore of Seville , Hrabanus Maurus , Mythographus Vaticanus Primus , Mythographus Vaticanus Secundus , Mythographus Vaticanus Tertius ). But chapters are also dedicated to them in moral and educational works such as the Epistre L'Othéa by Christine de Pizan . There they become synonyms for death.
For the visual arts, the recasting of the Trionfi by Francesco Petrarch by the French poet Jean Robertet is important. Robertet introduces the Fates to the triumph of death , which Petrarch does not mention. It is through this detour that the Parzen found their way into the iconography of the Trionfi . Numerous tapestry series show the goddesses of fate as personifications of death.
In the poetry of the Classical and Early Romantic periods, the motif in German poetry is again being given increasing attention ( Friedrich Schiller : An die Parzen , Johann Wolfgang Goethe : Faust II , Friedrich Hölderlin : An die Parzen , Heinrich Heine : There are three women sitting at the crossroads ), in the literature of the 20th century, for example, from Albert Vigoleis Thelen : Holmgang , Hans Magnus Enzensberger : lachesis lapponica . In the drama The Alcestiad of Thornton Wilder they appear as The Drunken Sisters in the final part and bring along with Apollo the previous tragedy action in motion.
The Parzen can also be found in modern entertainment literature. Stephen King processed the motif in his book Insomnia - Schlaflos .
- Jean-Philippe Rameau : Trio des Parques , Hippolyte et Aricie , 2nd entry (1733).
- Johannes Brahms : Gesang der Parzen , op. 89 for six-part choir and orchestra based on the literary model of the Goethe poem
- Emerson, Lake and Palmer : The Three Fates (CD: 1970 - Emerson, Lake & Palmer )
In painting and sculpture
- Tapestry with the three Fates , London, Victoria & Albert Museum, uncertain: France or Flanders, late 15th century
- Hans Baldung Grien : The three Parzen , woodcut, 1513
- Peter Vischer the Elder J .: The dream of Hercules , drawing, Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett
- Lucas de Heere : Allegory of the birth of Emperor Charles V , Gent, Bijloke Abbey
- Jean Duvet : Entrance to the Apocalypse , etching
- Peter Paul Rubens : opening image of the Medici cycle , Paris, Louvre
- Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem : The three Parzen , Paris, formerly Art trade
- Johann Joachim Kellers : Centerpiece with the Parzen for Catherine II of Russia , Oranienbaum Palace near St. Petersburg
- Asmus Jakob Carstens : The singing Parze Atropos , several plaster casts of the missing original a. a. Frankfurt, Liebieghaus
- Francisco de Goya : Las Parcas , Madrid, Museo del Prado
- Johann Gottfried Schadow : Tomb of the Count of the Mark , Berlin, Old National Gallery
- Johann Gottfried Schadow : Tomb of Count Blumenthal , Gut Horst, Brandenburg
- Bernhard Rode : dedication etching for the Berlin doctor Johann Carl Wilhelm Moehsen
- Johann Heinrich Dannecker : Parzen as a watch case, several shapes a. a. Stuttgart, State Gallery
- Christian Daniel Rauch : candelabra in the mausoleum of Queen Luise, Berlin, park of Charlottenburg Palace
- Bertel Thorvaldsen : Relief with the Parzen , Copenhagen, Thorvaldsen Museum
- Edwin Scharff : Parze , Edwin Scharff Museum, Neu-Ulm
- Bernhard Heiliger : The three Fates , University of Münster
- Wolfgang Friedrich (born 1947): 3 Parzen , owned by the artist
- Martin Mosebach (born 1951): The beautiful habit of living , 1997
- Pietro Belotti , The Parze Lachesis , around 1684, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
- Thomas Blisniewski : Children of the Dark Night. The iconography of the Parzen from the late Middle Ages to the late XVIII. Century . Dissertation, University of Cologne 1992 (with a detailed bibliography on Moiren and Parzen and their afterlife in art).
- Samson Eitrem : Moira. In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume XVI, 1, Stuttgart 1933, Col. 2449-2497.
- Fritz Moritz Heichelheim : Parcae (Celtic). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume XVIII, 4, Stuttgart 1949, Sp. 1417-1419.
- Albert Henrichs : Parcae. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 9, Metzler, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-476-01479-7 , Sp. 327.
- Hildegard Kirschenknapp: Parzen and Norns . The poetic formation of the mythological figures of fate between the Enlightenment and Expressionism . Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 2000, ISBN 3-631-36024-X (= European university publications . Series 1, volume 1750, also dissertation , University of Düsseldorf 1999).
- Gernot Michael Müller : Moiren. In: Maria Moog-Grünewald (Ed.): Mythenrezeption. The ancient mythology in literature, music and art from the beginnings to the present (= Der Neue Pauly . Supplements. Volume 5). Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2008, ISBN 978-3-476-02032-1 , pp. 436-440.
- Rudolf Peter: Parca, Parcae . In: Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (Hrsg.): Detailed lexicon of Greek and Roman mythology . Volume 3.1, Leipzig 1902, Col. 1569 f. ( ).
- Author: Lukian von Samosata , title: Lucians von Samosata all works: Zweyter Theil, Volume 2 Editor: Weidmanns Erben und Reich, year of publication: 1788, page 449 ( online )
- Author: John Lemprière Title: A Classical Dictionary: Containing a Copious Account of All the Proper Names Mentioned in Ancient Authors; with the Value of Coins, Weights and Measures, Used Among the Greeks and Romans; and a Chronological Table Publisher: Collin & Company Year of publication: 1827 Page 580 (English)