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Saltera sarcocolla

Saltera sarcocolla

Nuclear eudicotyledons
Eurosiden II
Order : Myrtle-like (Myrtales)
Family : Penaeaceae
Scientific name
Sweet ex Guill.

The Penaeaceae are a family of plants in the order of the myrtle-like (Myrtales). The approximately 30 species occur in eastern and southern Africa and on St. Helena. The center of biodiversity is the capensis .

Description and ecology

Branch with leaves and fruits of Olinia emarginata
Tribus Olinieae: branch with leaves and inflorescences of Olinia ventosa

The species of the family are evergreen shrubs , mostly they are small and erikoid . The simple, leathery leaves are opposite to most of the other myrtle-like leaves, but there are taxa with whorled leaves. The leaf margins are smooth. Stipules are present or absent.

The flowers stand alone or in inflorescences . The hermaphroditic flowers are radial symmetry and four-fold. There are only four bracts . There is only one circle with four free, fertile stamens with short stamens . Four fruit leaves are a top permanent ovary overgrown. In each flower there is only one stylus with a cephalic or four-lobed stigma .

Only with Olinia are stone fruits , with the other genera capsule fruits are formed. The seeds usually have an elaiosome . In many species, the seeds are spread by ants ( myrmecochory ).

The basic chromosome number is x = 10.

Tribe Penaeeae: Penaea cneorum
Tribe Penaeeae: Sonderothamnus speciosus

Systematics and distribution

The Penaeaceae family was established in 1828 by Robert Sweet in Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemin : Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle , 13, p. 171. The type genus is Penaea L. The two genera Olinia and Rhynchocalyx of the monogeneric families Rhynchocalycaceae LASJohnson & BGBriggs and Oliniaceae Harv. & Sond. were incorporated into the Penaeaceae family. It belongs to the order of the Myrtales .

The family Penaeaceae is divided into two tribes and contains about nine genera with about 30 species :

  • Tribe Olinieae Horan. : It contains only one genus:
  • Tribe Penaeeae DC. : It contains about seven genera only in the Capensis:
    • Brachysiphon A.Juss. : Of the approximately five species, one thrives in the arid mountain ranges in central-southern South Africa and the others only occur in the southwestern Western Cape .
    • Endonema A.Juss. : The only two species occur only in the Riversonderend Mountains in the Western Cape.
    • Glischrocolla (Endl.) A.DC. : It contains only one type:
      • Glischrocolla formosa (Thunb.) R.Dahlgren : This rare species is endemic to the Western Cape in the northern “Hottentots Holland” mountains at altitudes between 1200 and 1400 meters.
    • Penaea L .: The approximately four species occur from the Cape Peninsula to Port Elisabeth in the Capensis, for example:
      • Penaea mucronata L. The sarcocolla resin (also known as sarcocolla and Persian gum ), which was also used in the pharmaceutical industry, was obtained from these and other plants.
    • Saltera Bullock (Syn .: Sarcocolla Kunth ): With only one species:
    • Sonderothamnus R.Dahlgren : it contains one or two species in capensis.
    • Stylapterus A.Juss. : The approximately eight species mostly have very small distribution areas in the southwestern Western Cape.


Individual evidence

  1. ^ Penaeaceae at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group : An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 105-121, DOI: 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
  3. Penaeaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  4. Dieter Lehmann: Two medical prescription books of the 15th century from the Upper Rhine. Part I: Text and Glossary. Horst Wellm, Pattensen / Han. 1985, now at Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 34), ISBN 3-921456-63-0 , p. 249 f. ("A piece in the apotecken is called sarcocolla").
  5. Jürgen Martin: The 'Ulmer Wundarznei'. Introduction - Text - Glossary on a monument to German specialist prose from the 15th century. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1991 (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 52), ISBN 3-88479-801-4 (also medical dissertation Würzburg 1990), p. 168 ( sarcocolla : resinous excretion of Astragalus sarcolla Dymock, Sarcocolla fuscata (L. ) DC., Sarcocolla squamosa (L.) Kunth or Penaea mucronata L.)

Web links

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