|Sweet ex Guill.|
The Penaeaceae are a family of plants in the order of the myrtle-like (Myrtales). The approximately 30 species occur in eastern and southern Africa and on St. Helena. The center of biodiversity is the capensis .
Description and ecology
The species of the family are evergreen shrubs , mostly they are small and erikoid . The simple, leathery leaves are opposite to most of the other myrtle-like leaves, but there are taxa with whorled leaves. The leaf margins are smooth. Stipules are present or absent.
The flowers stand alone or in inflorescences . The hermaphroditic flowers are radial symmetry and four-fold. There are only four bracts . There is only one circle with four free, fertile stamens with short stamens . Four fruit leaves are a top permanent ovary overgrown. In each flower there is only one stylus with a cephalic or four-lobed stigma .
The basic chromosome number is x = 10.
Systematics and distribution
The Penaeaceae family was established in 1828 by Robert Sweet in Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemin : Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle , 13, p. 171. The type genus is Penaea L. The two genera Olinia and Rhynchocalyx of the monogeneric families Rhynchocalycaceae LASJohnson & BGBriggs and Oliniaceae Harv. & Sond. were incorporated into the Penaeaceae family. It belongs to the order of the Myrtales .
- Tribe Olinieae Horan. : It contains only one genus:
- Tribe Penaeeae DC. : It contains about seven genera only in the Capensis:
- Brachysiphon A.Juss. : Of the approximately five species, one thrives in the arid mountain ranges in central-southern South Africa and the others only occur in the southwestern Western Cape .
- Endonema A.Juss. : The only two species occur only in the Riversonderend Mountains in the Western Cape.
- Glischrocolla (Endl.) A.DC. : It contains only one type:
Penaea L .: The approximately four species occur from the Cape Peninsula to Port Elisabeth in the Capensis, for example:
- Penaea mucronata L. The sarcocolla resin (also known as sarcocolla and Persian gum ), which was also used in the pharmaceutical industry, was obtained from these and other plants.
Saltera Bullock (Syn .: Sarcocolla Kunth ): With only one species:
- Saltera sarcocolla (L.) Bullock ( Penaea sarcocolla L. ): It occurs in the Capensis.
- Sonderothamnus R.Dahlgren : it contains one or two species in capensis.
- Stylapterus A.Juss. : The approximately eight species mostly have very small distribution areas in the southwestern Western Cape.
- Incertae sedis:
- The Penaeaceae family on the AP website. (Sections Description, Distribution and Systematics).
- The families Penaeaceae , Rhynchocalycaceae and Oliniaceae at DELTA by L. Watson and MJ Dallwitz. (Section description).
- Penaeaceae at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- Angiosperm Phylogeny Group : An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 105-121, DOI: 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
- Penaeaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
- Dieter Lehmann: Two medical prescription books of the 15th century from the Upper Rhine. Part I: Text and Glossary. Horst Wellm, Pattensen / Han. 1985, now at Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 34), ISBN 3-921456-63-0 , p. 249 f. ("A piece in the apotecken is called sarcocolla").
- Jürgen Martin: The 'Ulmer Wundarznei'. Introduction - Text - Glossary on a monument to German specialist prose from the 15th century. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1991 (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 52), ISBN 3-88479-801-4 (also medical dissertation Würzburg 1990), p. 168 ( sarcocolla : resinous excretion of Astragalus sarcolla Dymock, Sarcocolla fuscata (L. ) DC., Sarcocolla squamosa (L.) Kunth or Penaea mucronata L.)