Systematics of the deafblings according to Marcel Bon

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This systematics of the pigeons divides the group of fungi into different groups based on common characteristics according to the concept of Marcel Bon ; it was released in 1988. The system is mainly based on the European species.

Subgenus Compacta

The species of this subgenus have sturdy, compact fruiting bodies and usually a short, thick stem. The edge of the hat remains rolled up for a long time and the hat skin is usually difficult to remove. The species have very many, different long intermediate lamellae, their number exceeds that of the actual lamellae, which are never forked. The lamellas usually run down in a curve or are wide. Brown pigments may be present, they are usually located in vacuoles. The cap skin generally contains laticifers , which are milk ducts like the ones found in dairy babies, only here they do not carry any milky sap, but only secrete a water-clear liquid. One to two-septate dermatocystidia also occur.

The subgenus Compacta include inter alia the only deadly poisonous Täubling Nisekurohatsu (Russula subnigricans) , coming from East Asia.

The sub-genus Compactae is in turn divided into two sections in Bon, which, despite a fairly similar appearance, are not too closely related, as DNA studies show. With the sections Gossypinae , Delicoarchaea and Fuegianae , further sections can be assigned to this subgenus. They all contain only non-European and mostly tropical species.

Section Compactae

The fruiting bodies of this section have a smooth hat with a sharp edge. The hat skin (pellis) is not sharply demarcated from the hat meat (trama), so that it is difficult to remove. The lamellae are strongly mixed with lamellae of different lengths and have white spore powder. If the meat is injured, it will often turn red, gray or blacken. The fruit bodies also gray or blacken with age or when drying. With FeSO 4 the meat turns gray, reddish or greenish. The taste is mild or more often slightly pungent; but rarely sharp.

Subsection Nigricantinae

Section Plorantes (Lactarioides)

The brim of the hat is smooth and sharp. In appearance (habit) they resemble the large white milk Lingen the section Albati with whom they are related to actually close. Therefore the name Lactarioides is favored for this section today. The spore powder is whitish, but in rare cases also ocher or yellowish. The spores have well-defined amyloid spots. The flesh firm, brittle and unchangeable. In some cases, it also turns pink, especially on the slats. Pigments are rare and mostly limited to a blue zone at the base of the lamella at the tip of the stem. The lamellas can also have a bluish tinge. Macrocystids and dermatocystids are found in the cap skin.


Subgenus Russula ( Eurussula )

The subgenus contains mostly vividly colored, less compact or thin species with a not long curled rim and usually easily removable hat skin. Intermediate lamellas are not present or only to a small extent. The actual lamellas can be forked on the stem or connected by cross veins.

Section Ingratae Quél.

Representatives of this section usually taste very hot or disgusting and rarely mild. The smell is strong and often unpleasant. The skin of the hat is usually strongly gelled, which is why the hat is often slimy when it is wet. The brim of the hat is usually grooved or furrowed with distinct bumps. The spore powder is white to cream in color. Dermatocystides are present, but are often normal. In older fruiting bodies, the stalk is strong and often hollow-combed to hollow. The pigments are ocher to brown. For Singer and Romagnesi, the Felleinae subsection also belongs in this section, but Bon sees it in the Russula section, which is supported by DNA analyzes and the mycorrhizal anatomy.

  • Type species: Russula foetens Pers.


Section Russula (Fragiles)

  • Type species: Russula emetica (Schaeff .: Fr.) Pers.


Section Violaceinae

This section contains small, fragile, sharp-tasting species with a typical smell of pelargonium or sand boletus . The spore powder is off-white. The fungi usually form a mycorrhiza with deciduous trees.

Companies section

Sharp, medium-sized, more or less robust or fleshy and not particularly fragile species. The stem is usually reddish or the same color as the hat. The mushrooms have a pleasant or fruity odor, often less noticeable as in the Violaceinae subsection , but often smelling a little like fresh apple or cedarwood oil. The basidia are elongated, up to 50 µm long or longer. Red or purple colors dominate the hat, rarely greenish, lavender or pink-violet tones. The spore powder is pale ocher.


Section Insidiosinae

The species in this section are sharp to very sharp, the spore powder yellow or orange. The stem is usually white or white with a reddish tinge. The lamellae are blunt near the edge. Dermatocystides are always present and can be stained with sulphoaldehyde. Basidia and Zystiden are not remarkably short.


Section Heterophyllae

Mostly large, robust species with different colored hats. The hat can be green, purple, greyish to wine red or brownish. The meat tastes mild or almost mild, except for the lamellas of some species. The hat skin has no encrusted elements. The pigments are granular, the spore powder white, cream-colored in exceptional cases also pale ocher. Dermatocystids are present except in Virescentinae and Amoeninae . These are unicellular and not septate. Without primordial hyphae , but with typical multiple septate hyphae ends, which usually contain a granular pigment. Missing red pigments, but can at Amoeninae occur. DNA analyzes showed that the representatives of this section are also phylogenetically related to one another.


section Tenellae

Completely mild or slightly sharp in the lamellae when young. Mostly small, slender, fragile species with a sharp edge. Easily detachable hat skin, slimy, with multiple septate dermatocystidia and hardly differentiated hyphae ends. Laticifera in the subpellis and in the stalk. Spore powder cream colored, ocher or yellow basidia typically short with few and usually short cystidia . Meat often yellowing.


Section Polychromae

Large or medium species. Flesh more or less firm, mild or a little bit sharp in the lamellae, seldom red or orange, mostly purple, purple, green, brown to ocher. Spore powder never knows. Meat more or less firm never blackening, but often yellowing or browning. Composition of the Pileipellis very variable; without granular pigment. Dermatocystidia or primordial hyphae present or absent. Voluminous but relatively short basidia. Long and broad cystids.

At Romagnesi there are also the Viridantinae , Olivaceinae , and Integrinae .

Subsection Decolorantinae

Mostly large species. Hat skin with dermatocystids. Under conifers, often in the bog. Stalk and flesh graying, reddening with formalin. Hat orange, yellow, red, rarely wine-red or brown-red. Mild or a little spicy taste in the lamellae. Spore powder cream to ocher.

Viridantes section

Meat with FeSO 4 green, with aniline water red. Herring smell. Stalk sometimes reddish. Flesh and stem brownish or yellowish. Spore Powder II-IVa.

Subsection Xerampelinae

Section Russulinae

Taste more or less pungent, menthol-like or bitter, only in exceptional cases mild or almost mild. Spore powder white, cream-colored, rarely ocher. Dermatocystids present, septate or not, morphologically well characterized, strongly reacting with sulphoaldehydes, more or less acid-resistant. Pigments red, purple, violet, less often green or yellow never encrusted.


Integrinae Paludosinae

Section Rigidae

Subsection Lepidinae

Large or medium-sized species with fine-grained, sometimes indistinct, incrusted dermatocystids. Hat red or pink. Hat skin grown on or hardly removable, matt to velvety.

Section Lilaceae


Mostly medium-sized species under conifers. Hat skin often white-frosted, without dermatocystidia . Flavor completely mild. Spore powder deeply to yellow, rarely ( Russula azurea ) white. Spores connected in a burr to a network.

Section Alutaceae

Olivaceinae subsection

Large species of cap skin and stem bark without dermatocystidia and without encrusted elements. Spore powder yellow. Firm, mild meat, with phenol purple to wine red. Stem white or red blotchy.

Individual evidence

  1. MS Park, H. Lee, SY Oh, PE Jung, SJ Seok, JJ Fong, YW Lim: Species delimitation of three species within the Russula subgenus Compacta in Korea: R. eccentrica, R. nigricans, and R. subnigricans. In: Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea). Volume 52, number 8, August 2014, pp. 631-638, doi : 10.1007 / s12275-014-4168-z , PMID 24994012 .
  2. Linda Gail Price: Milkcaps. California Academy of Sciences , October 29, 2014. Accessed January 18, 2016