Æthelflæd (also Ethelfled , Ethelflaed , Æthelflæda or Ethelfleda ; * around 870; † June 12, 918 in Tamworth ) was ruler of Mercia , an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the early Middle Ages , from 911 to 918 . Æthelflæd was the eldest daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex and his wife Ealhswith . Æthelflæd was born around the year 870 and married the nobleman Æthelred in 886 , at whose side she ruled over Mercia. After his death in 911, she took sole control of Mercia, one of the rare examples of a woman ruling a kingdom in the European Middle Ages .
During their reign, Æthelflæd took action primarily against the Danish Vikings , who had expanded their domain to the western part of England including part of Mercia. Æthelflæd carried out the military actions partly in close cooperation with her brother Eduard the Elder of Wessex, who also had a great interest in pushing back the Danes' sphere of influence. Æthelflæd's greatest military success is likely to be the recapture of the city of Derby, which was once part of Mercia . Furthermore, Æthelflæd fortified some cities, including Chester and Tamworth , and built refuge castles ( burhs ), especially on the borders with Danelag and Wales , to defend Mercia from raids by its neighbors.
After Æthelflæd's death, her daughter Ælfwynn took over the government in Mercia for a short time , but a few months later she was ousted by her uncle, Edward the Elder, King of Wessex, whereupon Mercia was ruled directly by the kings of Wessex.
In the second half of the 9th century and the beginning of the 10th century, Danish Vikings overran much of the English kingdoms of Northumbria , parts of Mercia and East Anglia, and even threatened the very existence of the Kingdom of Wessex. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex 871-899, managed to defend Wessex against the Danes by having some military successes against them. The Battle of Edington in 878 was significant, as a result of which he was able to negotiate a peace treaty with the King of the Danish Vikings, Guthrum . Thus England was de facto divided into two parts: a domain of the Danes, the Danelag , and the English domain, mainly King Alfred Wessex and his allies. Alfred then began a twofold strategy against the Danes: he began to build fortifications ( burhs ) against external attacks. At the same time he and his successors had the ambition to recapture the territories occupied by the Danes.
The Kingdom of Mercia also suffered from the Viking invasions. Under the rule of the Merzian king Burgred (852–874), the Danish Vikings succeeded in establishing themselves for the first time in the north of England and finally driving out Burgred. In 877 the eastern part of Mercias fell under the rule of the Danes. The western part in turn remained under Anglo-Saxon rule under King Ceolwulf II , who was followed a few years later by Æthelred.
In contrast to his predecessors, Æthelred no longer had the title “King”: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle referred to him as Ealdorman or as myrcna hlaford (German: “Lord of the Mercier”). Documents from Wessex used the title subregulus (German for 'little sub-king'). Various sources also indicate that Æthelred recognized the sovereignty of the King of Wessex. Other, later sources such as the chronicler Æthelweard or Irish sources from the 10th century, however, referred to him as rex 'king' , which may suggest that Æthelred had powers comparable to a king.
Youth and Marriage
Æthelflæd was the eldest daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex and Ealhswith of Mercia. Ealswith came from a noble family in Mercia; Ealswith's mother was one of the daughters of the Merzian king Offa . Alfred himself also had connections to Mercia, because his sister Æthelswith was married to the Merzian king Burgred. Æthelflæd's year of birth is unknown, but many historians estimate it to be around 870.
Around 886 Æthelflæd was married to Æthelred, the ruler of Mercia, although it can be assumed that the marriage was politically motivated to strengthen the ties between Wessex and Mercia. Æthelred was significantly older than Æthelflæd, although a larger age difference was quite common around this time. Around 886 Alfred handed over the rulership of London, which had just been conquered by the Danes, to Æthelred, which is why some historians suspect that London was a dowry for Æthelflæd on the occasion of her wedding to Æthelred.
There are some legends about Æthelflæd's way to her wedding, but they have not been historically documented: for example, her entourage was said to have been attacked by the Danes while she was on the way to her wedding in Mercia. According to legend, the Danes wanted to kill Æthelflæd to prevent the alliance between Wessex and Mercia. Although half of their company fell in the first attack, Æthelflæd managed in this story to entrench himself in a ditch with the rest and beat the Danes. There are no reports of the incident from contemporary sources, so this story is likely a later medieval or even first modern invention.
Æthelred and Æthelflæd had only one child known to posterity, their daughter Ælfwynn , who was probably born in the early years of their marriage. William of Malmesbury , who describes Æthelflæd's life in the 12th century, says that Ælfwynn's birth was so difficult that thelflæd chose to abstain in order to avoid another such painful experience. Since there are no sources from Æthelflæd's lifetime to corroborate this story, modern historians suggest that William may have made up this anecdote. So it might have been one of William's goals to portray Æthelflæd as morally pure, and a celibate , celibate life would then fit into the picture.
In addition to Ælfwynn, another royal child grew up at the court of Æthelflæd: Æthelstan , the son of Edward the Elder of Wessex, nephew of Æthelflæd and later King of England. He was educated in Mercia by Æthelred and Æthelflæd. This connection to Mercia probably made it easier for Æthelstan to be accepted as ruler of Mercia after the death of Edward.
Æthelflæd and Æthelred (886–911)
A large part of Æthelred's rule was marked by campaigns against the Danes in the north and west of England, often in cooperation with Alfred and his successor, Edward the Elder. Historians assume that Æthelflæd played a major political role in Mercia during the lifetime of her husband Æthelred. This is supported by documents from the years 888, 889 and 896, in which Æthelflæd appears as a witness. According to a document from the year 901, Æthelflæd and Æthelred donated land and a golden chalice for the shrine of Saint Mildburg in the monastery of Much Wenlock . Contemporary sources also report joint founding of localities and the establishment of refuges (old English burhs ) by Æthelflæd and Æthelred.
Æthelred and Æthelflæd followed the policy of King Alfred when they fortified Mercia with refuge castles and thus could better defend it against invading Vikings. A number of new burhs were founded on Æthelred and thelflæd , including the later cities of Gloucester and Shrewsbury . In 907 Æthelflæd had the destroyed city of Chester rebuilt. The construction of St. Oswald's Church in Gloucester also goes back to Æthelred and Æthelflæd. In 909 a joint army with troops from Wessex and Mercia led a successful campaign against the Danish Lindsey , where they took the remains of Saint Oswald of Northumbria in Bardney Abbey and transferred them to Gloucester, where they were relics in the one founded by Æthelred and Æthelflæd Church were kept.
Although Mercia was a kingdom dependent on Wessex, many sources suggest that Æthelred and Æthelflæd acted as rulers relatively independently of Wessex.
Contemporary Irish sources indicate that Æthelred was ill in the last few years of his life, but there is no evidence of this in Wessex and Mercia sources. According to the Anglo-Saxon chronicle, Æthelred died shortly after the Battle of Tettenhall in 910 between Danes and a united army from Wessex and Mercia.
Sole ruler of Mercia (911–918)
After her husband died in 911, Æthelflæd Mercia ruled as sole ruler. As her husband was led under the title myrcna hlaford 'Lord of the Mercier', so Æthelflæd was referred to with the corresponding female title myrcna hlædige , Lady of the Mercians . With the assumption of rule in Mercia, albeit not under the title "Queen", Æthelflæd was one of the few women in early medieval Europe with this position. The fact that she was accepted as ruler was also due to the fact that Mercia already had a tradition in which queens had more participation in power than in Wessex, for example - according to historians. In addition, Æthelflæd could rely on the fact that she herself descended from a Merzian royal line and was the widow of the last ruler for her claim. She not only filled out the title Lady of the Mercians pro forma, but also turned out to be a good diplomat and political and military leader in her country. In Irish and Welsh sources she is even referred to as a queen, further evidence that Æthelflæd had political and military power comparable to that of a queen.
Several places in Mercia were already fortified under Æthelred, but as sole ruler Æthelflæd continued the fortress building program on a large scale, especially at the national borders towards Danelag, north and towards Wales. According to the sources, Æthelflæd alone fortified ten places (so-called burhs ), including Bridgnorth on the Severn (912), Tamworth (913), Stafford (913) and Warwick (914). These burhs served as defenses against attacks from outside and as starting points for military campaigns against the Danish Vikings in the Danelag and against the Welsh, sometimes together with their brother, King Edward the Elder of Wessex. Part of the campaigns was also to regain formerly Merzian territory from the Danes. Probably Æthelflæd's greatest military success was the conquest of the city of Derby in 917. The city of Leicester then fell to Æthelflæd without a fight. Both Derby and Leicester were in the Danelag area and became part of the Anglo-Saxon Mercia again through durchthelflæd's conquests.
Æthelflæd also took action against the Welsh on the eastern border of their empire. A military campaign against Wales from the year 916 is documented. The forts at Bridgnorth in 912 and Chirbury in 915 also served to put the Welsh under pressure. Fortresses in northwest Mercia, on Eddisbury Hill and Runcorn , were intended to keep Norwegian settlers in northern England, in Cheshire and Lancashire, under control. Shortly before her death, Æthelflæd negotiated with the Danes in York in 918 in order to secure their political submission, which, however, did not happen after her death.
Death and legacy
Æthelflæd died in Tamworth in 918 . She was buried next to Æthelred in the monastery church of St. Oswald in Gloucester, which she founded .
Her daughter Ælfwynn followed as the new ruler of Mercia . However, Ælfwynn obviously did not have the support that her mother had and was deposed by King Edward the Elder of Wessex that same year and taken to Wessex. There she may have spent her life in a monastery . The two kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia merged and formed the cornerstone for what would later become the united Kingdom of England .
The most important historical source on Æthelflæd's life is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , a collection of early medieval annals dating from the turn of the ages to the 12th century. Of the manuscripts that have come down to us, manuscripts B, C and D are particularly important for Æthelflæd's biography. They all contain a series of entries in the years 902 to 924 relating to events in Mercia. These entries are also referred to with the name Mercian Register and are based on an earlier, non-preserved document that found its way into the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The Mercian Register is also known as The Annals of Æthelflæd because of its focus on Æthelflæd's activities . Manuscript A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which in the opinion of many historians is based exclusively on sources from Wessex, hardly mentions Æthelflæd, which is also due to the fact that the West Saxon writers focused on events in Wessex.
In addition to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, there are also Irish and Scottish sources from the time of Æthelflæd, especially the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach . Although these annals focus on events in Ireland and northern Britain, occasional mention is made of events in Wessex and Mercia, including Æthelflæd's activities. Even more notable is an Irish chronicle called the Fragementary Annals of Ireland (also known as the Three Fragments ). In these annals there is quite extensive information about Æthelflæd. However, since the surviving version of the Fragementary Annals of Ireland is a 17th century copy of a lost 15th century manuscript, which in turn is based on an 11th century compilation, this source is considered closer by historians considered unreliable. The detailed narrative style is also noticeable, so that it is not possible to say exactly to what extent it is an actual story or fiction. Finally, more information about Æthelflæd can be found in the Welsh History of Cambria .
Finally, indirect conclusions about Æthelflæd's life and activities can be drawn from Anglo-Saxon documents in which Æthelflæd is mentioned - either because she granted land or other rights or because she is listed as a witness.
The Mercian Register and possibly other now lost sources served later medieval historians as raw material for their historiography. Worth mentioning in this context are William of Malmesbury and Henry of Huntingdon from the 12th century. William mentions Æthelflæd's achievements with praise in his 1120 Gesta Regum Anglorum , his description of the deeds of the English kings from 449 to 1127. William regards Æthelflæd with a certain admiration, because as a woman she was then considered male government and showed military leadership qualities but essentially as the "helper" of her brother Edward the Elder. The praise of Henry of Huntingdon is even more unreserved, he dedicates a poem to her as the "heroic Elfleda" in his History of England, Historia Anglorum . Some researchers speculate that Æthelflæd received so much attention in the 12th century because she was considered the ideal of a chaste queen due to her allegedly celibate lifestyle.
Although Æthelflæd received some attention from medieval historians such as Henry of Huntingdon, it has been largely forgotten later. Unlike the Celtic Queen Boudicca , who became a national icon in Great Britain, Æthelflæd was hardly known as a major historical figure. This changed in the middle of the 20th century when Æthelflæd received more attention in historical research. Various cities and regions also discovered Æthelflæd as an important figure in their local history as early as the 19th century. After all, the figure of Æthelflæd as the “warrior queen” has also found its way into popular culture since the end of the 20th century.
Æthelflæd's life has now been well researched. Alongside Alfred the Great, Edward the Elder and the later English kings Æthelstan and Edgar , she is considered to be one of the most important personalities who contributed to the emergence of England . One of the most important modern historians in this regard is Frederick Wainwright, whose 1959 article on Æthelflæd deals with her in detail for the first time. Further studies arose primarily from the growing interest in the history of medieval women. That is why Æthelflæd is - apart from saints and abbesses - one of the best-researched Anglo-Saxon women.
On the occasion of the 1100th anniversary of her death, Æthelflæd was honored by several English cities whose history can be traced back to her. For example, Æthelflæd's funeral was re-enacted in Gloucester in front of 10,000 spectators. In Tamworth, the 1100th year of her death was also celebrated through various cultural events, including the installation of a six meter high statue of Æthelflæd.
The figure of Æthelflæd has meanwhile also become part of popular culture. A fictional version of Æthelflæd z. B. as a character in Bernard Cornwell's historical novel series The Saxon Chronicles ( Eng . The Utrehd Saga ). The series of novels has since been filmed as a television series with the title The Last Kingdom . Æthelflæd appears here as one of the main characters in the second season, although some of the events depicted (e.g. she is kidnapped and falls in love with a Danish warlord) have nothing to do with historical reality.
The Old English version of their name was Æthelflæd , which is a combination of æthel 'noble' and flæd 'beauty' . Æthelflæd was a relatively common name in Anglo-Saxon times. In later literature there are other spelling variants: Ethelfled , Ethelflæd , Ethelfleda and Æthelflæda , the latter two variants being attempts to make the name sound more feminine. Ethelfleda is often found in texts from the Victorian era and from the beginning of the 20th century. Through historical novels and television series, Æthelflæd has become the name most familiar to lay audiences.
- Cotton MS Tiberius A VI: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, B-text (The Annals of Æthelflæd) . Digitized manuscripts in the British Library, London, www.bl.uk.
- Patrick Conner (Ed.): The Abingdon Chronicle AD 956-1066 . Cambridge 1996.
- Michael Swanton (Ed. And translation): The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles . Revised edition. Routledge, London 2000.
Other contemporary sources
- The Electronic Sawyer: Online Catalog of Anglo-Saxon Charters . King's College, London.
- Joan Newlon Radner (translator): Fragmentary Annals of Ireland . CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.
- Annals of Ireland. Three fragments , copied from ancient sources by Dubhaltach MacFirbisigh; and edited, with a translation and notes, from a manuscript preserved in the Burgundian Library at Brussels . Dublin Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society, Dublin 1860.
- William Malmesbury: William of Malmesbury's Chronicle of the kings of England. From the earliest period to the reign of King Stephen , ed. by John Sharpe, JA (John Allen) Giles. HG Bohn, London 1847.
- William Malmesbury: Gesta Regum Anglorum , Volume 1, ed. by RAB Mynors, RM Thomson, and M. Winterbottom. Oxford 1986.
- Henry of Huntingdon: The chronicle of Henry of Huntingdon . Comprising the history of England, from the invasion of Julius Cæsar to the accession of Henry II. Also, The acts of Stephen, king of England and duke of Normandy , ed. and translated by Thomas Forester. HG Bohn, London 1853.
- Henry of Huntingdon: Historia Anglorum , ed. by D. Greenway. Oxford 1996.
- Æthelflæd . In: Ann Williams, Alfred P. Smyth, David Kirby (Eds.): A Biograpical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain . Seaby, London 1991, ISBN 1-85264-047-2 , pp. 21-22.
- Ethelflaed . In: Richard Fletcher: Who's Who in Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon England . Shepheard-Walwyn, London 1989, ISBN 0-85683-114-X , pp. 147-148.
- Joanna Arman: The Warrior Queen. The Life and Legend of Æthelflæd, Daughter of Alfred the Great . Amberley, Stroud 2017, ISBN 978-1-4456-8279-2 .
- Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 .
- Frank Stenton: Anglo-Saxon England. 3. Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1971, ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5 .
- Charles Patrick Wormald: Æthelflæd . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 1, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1980, ISBN 3-7608-8901-8 , Sp. 187 f.
- The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Project Gutenberg (English)
- Tamworth Borough Council: Æthelflæd . In: Tamworth Castle at http://www.tamworthcastle.co.uk , last accessed on February 29, 2020.
- ^ Frank Stenton: Anglo-Saxon England. 3. Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1971, ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5 , pp. 260-265, 323.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , p. 105.
- ^ Barbara Yorke: Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England . Routledge, London / New York 1990, ISBN 0-415-16639-X , pp. 122-123.
- ^ Nicholas J. Higham, Martin J. Ryan: The Anglo-Saxon World . Yale University Press, New Haven / London 2013, ISBN 978-0-300-21613-4 , p. 261.
- ^ Simon Keynes: Mercia and Wessex in the Ninth Century . In: Michelle P. Brown, Carol A. Farr (Eds.): Mercia. To Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe . Leicester University Press, London / New York 2001, ISBN 0-7185-0231-0 , p. 327.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , pp. 50-52.
- ↑ Æthelred . In: Ann Williams, Alfred P. Smyth, David Kirby (Eds.): A Bibliograpical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain . Seaby, London 1991, ISBN 1-85264-047-2 , p. 47.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , p. 39.
- ^ Joanna Arman: The Warrior Queen. The Life and Legend of Æthelflæd, Daughter of Alfred the Great . Amberley, Stroud 2017, ISBN 978-1-4456-8279-2 , p. 31.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , p. 54.
- ^ Joanna Arman: The Warrior Queen. The Life and Legend of Æthelflæd, Daughter of Alfred the Great . Amberley, Stroud 2017, ISBN 978-1-4456-8279-2 , p. 91.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , p. 63.
- ^ Alan Thacker: Kings, Saints and Monasteries in Pre-Viking Mercia . In: Midland History. Volume X, 1985, ISSN 1756-381X , pp. 1-25.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , pp. 72, 82, 92.
- ↑ Carolyn Heighway: Gloucester and the New Minster of St Oswald . In: NJ Higham, DH Hill (Ed.): Edward the Elder 899-924 . Routledge, London / New York 2001, ISBN 0-415-21497-1 , pp. 103, 108.
- ^ Nicholas J. Higham, Martin J. Ryan: The Anglo-Saxon World. Yale University Press, New Haven / London 2013, ISBN 978-0-300-21613-4 , p. 298.
- ^ Joanna Arman: The Warrior Queen. The Life and Legend of Æthelflæd, Daughter of Alfred the Great . Amberley, Stroud 2017, ISBN 978-1-4456-8279-2 , p. 154.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , p. 102.
- ^ Pauline Stafford: Political Women in Mercia, Eighth to Early Tenth Centuries . In: Michelle P. Brown, Carol A. Farr (Eds.): Mercia: An Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe . Leicester University Press, London 2001, ISBN 978-0-7185-0231-7 , pp. 35-49.
- ^ Joanna Arman: The Warrior Queen. The Life and Legend of Æthelflæd, Daughter of Alfred the Great . Amberley, Stroud 2017, ISBN 978-1-4456-8279-2 , p. 158.
- ↑ Ethelflaed . In: Richard Fletcher: Who's Who in Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon England . Shepheard-Walwyn, London 1989, ISBN 0-85683-114-X , pp. 147-148.
- ^ Frank Stenton: Anglo-Saxon England , 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1971, ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5 , pp. 326-329.
- ↑ Ethelflaed . In: Richard Fletcher: Who's Who in Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon England . Shepheard-Walwyn, London 1989, ISBN 0-85683-114-X , p. 148.
- ↑ Carolyn Heighway: Gloucester and the New Minster of St Oswald . In: NJ Higham, DH Hill (Ed.): Edward the Elder 899-924 . Routledge, London / New York 2001, ISBN 0-415-21497-1 , p. 108.
- ↑ Maggie Bailey: Ælfwynn, second lady of the Mercians . In: NJ Higham, DH Hill (Ed.): Edward the Elder 899-924 . Routledge, London / New York 2001, ISBN 0-415-21497-1 , pp. 112-127.
- ^ Pauline Stafford: 'The Annals of Æthelflæd': Annals, History and Politics in Early Tenth-Century England . In: Julia Barrow, Andrew Wareham (Eds.): Myth, Rulership, Church and Charters . Ashgate, Aldershot 2007, ISBN 978-0-7546-5120-8 , pp. 101-116.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , pp. 11-13.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , pp. 13-14.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , pp. 169-170.
- ↑ J. Chance: Woman as Hero in Old English Literature . Syracuse, 1986, p. 610.
- ↑ Frederick Wainwright: Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians . In: Peter Clemoes (Ed.): The Anglo-Saxons. Studies in Some Aspects of their History and Culture Presented to Bruce Dickins . Bowes and Bowes, London 1959, pp. 53-69.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , p. 170.
- ↑ Gloucester funeral procession honors Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians . In: BBC News. June 10, 2018, last accessed on February 29, 2020.
- ^ Tamworth Borough Council: Æthelflæd . In: Visit Tamworth at http://www.visittamworth.co.uk , last accessed February 29, 2020.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , p. 171.
- ↑ Tim Clarkson: Æthelflæd. The Lady of the Mercians . John Donald, Edinburgh 2018, ISBN 978-1-910900-16-1 , p. 5.
Ruler of Mercien
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ethelfled; Ethelflaed; Æthelflæda; Ethelfleda|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Ruler of Mercia (911–918)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 870|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 12, 918|
|Place of death||Tamworth , Staffordshire|