Cohors I Alpinorum (Pannonia, equitata)
The Cohors I Alpinorum [equitata] [Galliana Volusiana] ( German 1st cohort of the Alpine inhabitants [partly mounted] [the Gallian Volusian] ) was a Roman auxiliary unit . It is evidenced by military diplomas , inscriptions and brick stamps.
- I : The Roman number stands for the ordinal number, the first ( Latin prima ). Hence the name of this military unit is pronounced as Cohors prima ...
- Alpinorum : the alpine dweller. When the unit was established, the soldiers of the cohort were recruited from tribes that settled in the Alps.
- equitata : partially mounted. The unit was a mixed association of infantry and cavalry. The addition appears in the military diplomas from 143 to 193, in several inscriptions and on a brick.
- Galliana Volusiana : the Gallian Volusian. A title of honor that refers to Trebonianus Gallus (251-253) and his son Volusianus . The addition appears in an inscription.
Since there is no evidence of the addition of milliaria (1000 men) to the name , the unit was a Cohors quingenaria equitata . The nominal strength of the cohort was 600 men (480 infantry and 120 horsemen), consisting of 6 centuries of infantry with 80 men each and 4 tower cavalry with 30 horsemen each.
The first evidence in Pannonia is based on a diploma dated 80. In the diploma, the cohort is listed as part of the troops (see Roman Forces in Pannonia ) that were stationed in the province. Further diplomas, which are dated from 84 to 193, prove the unit in the same province (or from 110 in Pannonia inferior ).
The last evidence of the cohort is based on an inscription dated 252/253.
Locations of the cohort in Pannonia were possibly:
- Lugio ( Dunaszekcső ): an inscription was found here.
- Lussonium ( Dunakömlőd ): three inscriptions were found here.
- Matrica ( Százhalombatta ): three inscriptions were found here (see also Roman stone monuments from Százhalombatta-Dunafüred ).
- Vetus Salina ( Adony ): a brick with the stamp of unity was found here.
Members of the cohort
The following members of the cohort are known.
- John Spaul : Cohors² The evidence for and a short history of the auxiliary infantry units of the Imperial Roman Army , British Archaeological Reports 2000, BAR International Series (Book 841), ISBN 978-1-84171-046-4
- According to John Spaul, the soldiers came from the Alpine regions around the Roman province of Gallia cisalpina . According to Florian Matei-Popescu, Ovidiu Țentea (2018), the soldiers were recruited from the provinces of Alpes Cottiae , Alpes Graiae and Alpes Maritimae .
- The scenario given here is based on three cohorts: the Cohors I Alpinorum (Dacia) , which was stationed in the provinces of Britannia , Moesia and Dacia , as well as the Cohors I Alpinorum (Pannonia, equitata) and the Cohors I Alpinorum (Pannonia, peditata ) , who were both stationed in the provinces of Pannonia and Pannonia Inferior .
- The participation of a Cohors I Alpinorum equitata in the Dacian War of Trajan is proven by the inscription ( AE 1939, 81 ). According to Margaret M. Roxan and Florian Matei-Popescu, Ovidiu Țentea, the unit is probably more likely to have been the Cohors I Alpinorum (Dacia) .
- The diplomas were issued for the provinces of Illyricum , Dalmatia and Pannonia . According to Werner Eck, Andreas Pangerl, the Cohors I Alpinorum found in Illyricum and Dalmatia could be identical to one of the two units stationed in Pannonia.
- The assignment of the soldier to one of the three cohorts is controversial.
- John Spaul assigns Proculus to the Cohors I Alpinorum equitata . The reading at EDCS is eques coh (ortis) I [U] lp (iae) ve [x (illarius)] equit [um] .
- John Spaul , Cohors², pp. 257-263.
- Florian Matei-Popescu, Ovidiu Țentea: Auxilia Moesiae Superioris , Mega Publishing House 2018, ISBN 978-606-020-063-5 , pp. 31-33 ( online )
- Inscriptions with equitata ( AE 1990, 824 , AE 1993, 1300 , AE 1995, 1271 , CIL 3, 1183 , CIL 3, 3315 , CIL 3, 3316 , CIL 3, 3352 ).
- Bricks from Vetus Salina : stamp COH I ALP EQ ( RHP 223 ).
- inscription with Galliana Volusiana ( AE 1990, 824 ).
- Military the years 80 ( CIL 16, 26 ), 84 ( CIL 16, 30 ), 85 ( CIL 16, 31 ), 110 ( CIL 16, 164 ), 114 ( AE 2010, 1860 , CIL 16, 61 , RMD 3 , 152 ), 119 ( AE 2003, 2041 ), 135 ( RMD 4, 251 ), 143 ( RMD 4, 266 ), 144 ( RMD 5, 397 ), 146 ( ZPE-171-229 ), 148 ( CIL 16, 179 , CIL 16, 180 ), 152 ( ZPE-171-221 ), 154 ( ZPE-146-247 ), 157 ( AE 2009, 1079 , RMD 2, 102 , RMD 2, 103 ), 159 ( CIL 16, 112 ), 162 ( ZPE-173-223 ) and 193 ( RMD 5, 446 , RMD 5, 447 ).
- Jörg Scheuerbrandt : Exercitus. Tasks, organization and command structure of Roman armies during the imperial era. Dissertation, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau 2003/2004, pp. 161, 163 Tables 5, 7 ( PDF ).
- Florian Matei-Popescu, Ovidiu Țentea: The Participation of the Auxiliary Troops from Moesia Superior in Trajan's Dacian Wars In: Dacia , 2006, pp. 127–140, here pp. 129–130 ( online ).
- Margaret M. Roxan : Two Complete Diplomas of Pannonia Inferior: 19 May 135 and 7 Aug. 143. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (ZPE), Volume 127 (1999), pp. 249-273, here pp. 259-260, 266 ( PDF ).
- Military diplomas of the years 60 ( CIL 16, 4 ), 97 ( ZPE-163-238 ), 102 ( CIL 16, 47 ) and 154/161 ( RMD 2, 110 ).
- Werner Eck , Andreas Pangerl: A constitution for the troops of the province of Dalmatia under Nerva In: ZPE, Volume 163 (2007), pp. 233-238, here p. 235.
- Inscription from Lugio ( RHP 219 ).
- Inscriptions from Lussonium ( AE 1990, 824 , CIL 3, 3315 , CIL 3, 3316 ).
- Inscriptions from Matrica ( AE 1982, 812 , AE 1993, 1300 , AE 1995, 1271 ).