Wire Schmiele ( Deschampsia flexuosa ), illustration
|( L. ) Trin.|
The wire Schmiele ( Deschampsia flexuosa ), also known as the serpentine Schmiele , is a type of grass from the genus of the Schmielen ( Deschampsia ) in the sweet grass family (Poaceae). It marks acidic and poor locations and is often used for decorative purposes in floristry and horticulture due to its attractive panicles, like other Schmielen.
The wire Schmiele is a perennial plant that grows in loose to dense clumps . It is rooted up to 1 meter deep and reaches heights between 30 and 50, sometimes up to 70 and more centimeters. The smooth stalks grow upright or curved from the base. They are very tight and thin and wear one to three knots . The leaf sheaths are round on the back and slightly rough above. The ligule are blunt and measure up to 3 millimeters in length, but are mostly much shorter. The bald, finely bristled and rolled-up leaf blades feel oily and smooth. They become about eight inches long.
The inflorescences are very loose and open panicles . These are up to 15 inches long and about 10 inches wide. The main axes are winding, rough and very thin. They have two twisted branches at each knot. The 2 to 6 millimeters long spikelets are usually two-flowered. The mostly four-toothed lemmas carry a 4 to 7 millimeter long kneeling awn, which clearly towers above the spikelet. The flowering period extends from June to July. The fruit ripens between August and October.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 14, 26 or 28.
The wire Schmiele is a perennial hemicryptophyte and a clump plant. In sunny locations it is red and deep-rooted. Its roots are over a meter deep.
The fruits are caryopses, which are loosely surrounded by lemmas and spread as balloon and wing fliers by the wind; In addition, animals spread as Velcro hooks and water-like ones, and water spreads as rainworms. The fruits are light germs .
The wire Schmiele is used worldwide. It is native to all of Europe as far as Asia and North Africa as well as South and North America. It grows on nutrient-poor and lime-poor, acidic soils in dwarf shrub heaths and grass lawns , tall herbaceous vegetation and shrubbery in the mountains, as well as in deciduous and coniferous forests. As a semi-shade to light plant, it only blooms optimally in locations with more light such as wooded areas. It occurs in societies of the classes Vaccinio-Piceetea and Nardo-Callunetea, but also in the associations Quercion roboris, Epilobion angustifolii or the sub-association Luzulo-Fagenion. In the Allgäu Alps it rises in Vorarlberg on Pellingers Köpfle and in the Tyrolean part in the Kelletal on the Großer Krottenkopf up to 2000 meters above sea level.
Taxonomy and systematics
One can distinguish several subspecies:
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. afromontana (CEHubb.) Veldkamp : It occurs from Ethiopia to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. corsica (exchange) Holub : It comes from the subarctic zones and subalpine areas of the northern hemisphere to the Caucasus.
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. flexuosa : It occurs from Europe to Japan, from Greenland to the United States, from southern South America to the Falkland Islands and in northwest Africa.
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. foliosa (Hack.) Veldkamp : It occurs in the Azores.
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. iberica (Rivas Mart.) Valdés & H.Scholz : It occurs from southern France to northern Spain.
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. ligulata (Stapf) Veldkamp : It occurs in the Philippines and Borneo.
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. maderensis (Hack. & Bornm.) Veldkamp : It occurs in Madeira.
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. mairei (Sennen) F.Albers ex Veldkamp : It occurs in southern Spain and Morocco.
- Avenella flexuosa subsp. stricta (Willk. & Lange) Veldkamp : It occurs in western Portugal and northwestern Spain.
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- Deschampsia flexuosa. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Wire Schmiele . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Profile and distribution map for Bavaria . In: Botanical Information Hub of Bavaria .
- Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora .
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