Driver training and driving test
With the driving test (Germany), driving test (Austria) or the driving test (Switzerland, Liechtenstein) the ability of a person to drive motor vehicles tested or motor vehicles. It requires driver training and, if passed, results in admission to road traffic .
If a driver's license (D), driver's license (A) or driving license (CH and FL) is issued, suitability to drive is required. With the handover of the driver's license (D and A) or driver's license (CH and FL) by the examiner on the day of the driving test, this is deemed to have been granted.
The world's first driving test took place on August 14, 1893. The reason for this was an order from the police in Paris. At that time, the tests were carried out by the Mining Authority, the inspectorate for steam engines . All vehicles with independent drive were assigned to the steam engines.
The driving skills of the examinee and his knowledge of the vehicle were tested. Small repairs also had to be carried out. The minimum age was 21 years. On March 10, 1899, the driver's license was introduced throughout France.
The era of driving licenses began in the German Empire in 1906, initially at the state level. In 1909, the Reich Law on Motor Vehicle Traffic came into force. A year later, the first classes of driving licenses were introduced. However, members of ruling royal houses were exempt from driving licenses.
Belgium was the last country in Europe to introduce the driving test on January 1st, 1967. Until then, no driving license was required.
Regulations in Germany
According to the Driving Instructors Act (FahrlG), the training of learner drivers is taken over by the state-approved driving instructors as part of a recognized private driving school .
The majority of the driving instructors instruct adults who want to acquire a license to drive vehicles (learner drivers) in theory and practice within the scope and objectives of the learner driver training regulations (FahrschAusbO). They convey the content and meaning of the legal and road traffic regulations and skills in safe and environmentally friendly driving of a motor vehicle in the scope of the desired driving license class.
The aim of the training is to develop
- knowledge and
- Skills, of
- Insights and ultimately one
- traffic-friendly and environmentally friendly behavior
to protect the individual and society.
An hour's drive (although driving hour called, it must take not mandatory 60 minutes and are usually 45 minutes) costs between 30 and 60 €. Some driving schools offer insurance against failing the driving test (so-called "diarrhea insurance"). Flat-rate or fixed prices for the training are expressly prohibited. Thus, margins are usually specified by the driving schools (e.g. "between € 1300 and € 1700"). A clear east / west price gap can be seen: Driver training in Bavaria costs an average of around € 2,000; in the new federal states less than 1500, - €.
Example of a price calculation:
- 1. Basic amount class B: approx. € 240.00
- 2. Presentation for the theoretical test class B: € 40.00
- 3. Class B driving lessons (basic driving exercises - city driving): approx. € 33.00
- 4. Special class B training trips: approx. € 43.00
- 5. Presentation for the practical test class B: € 140.00
Driving license test
The applicant for a driving license proves his / her ability in a theoretical and a practical test after completing his driver training. It is checked whether the candidate is capable of a motor vehicle in public road to run. The requirements are set out in detail in the Driving License Ordinance (FeV).
The examination is carried out by an officially recognized expert or examiner for motor vehicle traffic (aaSoP), commonly known as the driving examiner . After passing the driving license test, the driving license is issued in the tested driving license class. This happens when the driver's license is issued by the driving examiner or the responsible driving license authority. The driver's license is the official proof of possession of the driving license.
The acceptance of the driving license test by driving examiners in Germany is exclusively the responsibility of the technical test center responsible in the respective area. In the old federal states, the driving license test is operated by the regionally responsible TÜV , in the new federal states by DEKRA . Only in Berlin does the applicant have the choice between TÜV and DEKRA.
In 2017, 1.8 million theoretical and 1.7 million practical driving license tests (all classes) were carried out in Germany. Of these, 37% and 28% respectively failed the exams. Both the number of exams and the failure rates have increased in recent years. The reasons for this include language barriers in the theoretical and increasingly difficult traffic conditions in the practical test. The failure rate of the class B driving license is particularly high . In 2017, 44% failed the theoretical test and 40% failed the practical test
1,645,509 people had a probationary driving license as of January 1, 2018.
Depending on the driving license class , a theoretical test must be taken. Exceptions exist for the extension of motorcycle classes via the step access (A1 to A2, A2 to A) and for the extension of driving license classes to the associated trailer classes (B to BE, C1 to C1E, D1 to D1E and D to DE). The latter exception does not apply to the expansion from class C to CE. A theory test is mandatory here. The theoretical driving test is taken in German. In addition, the exam can be taken in English, French, Greek, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Croatian, Spanish, Turkish and, from October 1, 2016, also in Arabic.
The theoretical driving test was adjusted with effect from January 19, 2013 with the introduction of the EU-wide standardized driving license classes.
The theory test can be taken at the earliest three months before reaching the minimum age for the driving license class. The prerequisite for admission to the theory test is a certificate of training for the minimum theoretical instruction ( Section 16 (3) FeV).
In general, the applicant should show in the theoretical test that he has sufficient knowledge of the legal regulations and environmentally conscious driving techniques. He should also show that he is familiar with the dangers in road traffic and knows how to deal with them properly.
In detail, the examination material consists of hazard theory, behavior in road traffic, right of way, priority, traffic signs, environmental protection, operating regulations, technology and personal driving aptitude and ability.
The theoretical test has been carried out on the PC since 2010 with questions that are answered using the multiple-choice procedure . The questions consist of the basic material for all driving license classes and the class-specific additive. The individual questions have two to five points of error depending on their estimated importance. If the permissible number of error points is exceeded (e.g. ten points for class B), the exam is failed, or if two questions with five error points each are answered incorrectly. Furthermore, the exam will be assessed as failed in the event of cheating or attempts to cheat.
A failed theoretical examination can usually be repeated every two weeks. Until September 2008 the regulation of a three-month ban on examinations was in effect, this has been abolished and you can take the next exam in two weeks even after the third exam you failed. Passing the theoretical test is a prerequisite for taking the practical test. After passing the theoretical exam, the application is extended by twelve months, so you have another year to take the practical exam. If the practical test is not passed during this time, the application expires and a new application may have to be submitted to the driver's license office.
In special cases there is no need to take a theoretical test, e.g. B. if the driver's license was previously withdrawn and less than two years have passed when it was issued, or when a foreign driving license was recognized. Depending on the case, this may also apply to the practical test. The Driving License Ordinance (FeV) regulates more details.
Since April 1, 2014, questions with moving situations have been used in the theoretical driving test . With these representations, traffic situations should be mapped more closely. Since this format cannot be published in the traffic gazette together with the catalog of questions, it is published in electronic form in the Federal Gazette.
In most cases, passing a practical test is a prerequisite for being granted a driving license class . Only the class L driving license and the moped test certificate (this is also not a driving license) are only stored theoretically.
The practical test can be taken at the earliest one month before the minimum age for the driving license class is reached. In addition, the theoretical test must be passed beforehand.
In general, the applicant should show in the practical test that he can drive a motor vehicle of its class safely and in an environmentally conscious manner (driving ability). For the bus classes D1, D1E, D, DE, a certain level of driving skills is also required. In detail, depending on the driving license class, the test consists of driving preparation, departure control, manual skills, connecting and disconnecting trailers , basic driving tasks and the test drive . More details can be found in the Driving License Ordinance (FeV) and the guideline for examining applicants for a license to drive a motor vehicle (test guideline) . In addition, the applicant is usually prepared by his driving instructor for the special test conditions in his driving license class.
If the test is not passed, the driving examiner will send you a test report on which the mistakes made are marked and explained.
|Classes||Description of the examination tasks|
|AT THE||The test time is 30 minutes: a random technical safety check , four basic driving tasks (always: driving a small slalom / braking with the greatest possible deceleration; optionally: avoiding without braking / avoiding after braking; optionally: driving straight ahead at walking speed / stop and go / circular travel) and Driving , i.e. moving the motorcycle in traffic.|
|A1||The test time is 45 minutes: a random technical safety check , six basic driving tasks (always: driving a slalom at walking pace / braking with maximum possible deceleration / avoiding without braking / avoiding after braking; optional: short slalom / long slalom; optional: driving straight ahead at walking pace / Stop and Go / roundabout) and driving , i.e. moving the motorcycle in traffic.|
|A2 / A||The test time is 60 minutes: a random technical safety check , six basic driving tasks (always: driving a slalom at walking pace / braking with the highest possible deceleration / avoidance without braking / avoidance after braking; optional: short slalom / long slalom; optional: driving straight ahead at walking speed / Stop and Go / roundabout) and driving , i.e. moving the motorcycle in traffic. If you add the step-by-step approach (A1 to A2 or A2 to A), the alternative tasks are omitted and the examination time is reduced to 40 minutes.|
|B.||The examination time is 45 minutes: a random technical safety check , two basic driving tasks (optionally: driving backwards into a parking box / driving backwards to the right using an intersection, intersection or driveway; optionally: driving into a parking space / turning around / braking with the greatest possible deceleration) and driving , i.e. moving the motor vehicle in traffic, plus a mandatory basic driving task: braking with the greatest possible deceleration.|
|BE||The test time is 45 minutes: connecting or disconnecting , a basic driving task (reversing around a corner to the left) and driving , i.e. moving the train in traffic.|
|C.||The test time is 75 minutes: a technical departure check , two basic driving tasks (always: driving backwards and moving to the right on a ramp for loading or unloading; optionally: driving backwards to the right using a junction, intersection or driving / reversing into a parking space / backwards parking across or at an angle) and driving , i.e. moving the vehicle in traffic.|
|CE||The test time is 75 minutes: connecting or disconnecting , two basic driving tasks (reversing by reversing to the left / reversing straight on a ramp for loading or unloading) and driving , i.e. moving the train in traffic.|
|C1||The test time is 75 minutes: a technical departure control , two basic driving tasks (see class C) and driving , i.e. the actual test drive in road traffic.|
|C1E||The exam takes 75 minutes: connecting and disconnecting , two basic driving tasks ( driving backwards around a corner to the left / driving backwards straight on to a ramp for loading or unloading) and driving , i.e. moving the train in traffic.|
|D.||The examination time is 75 minutes: a technical manual dexterity and departure check , two basic driving tasks (always: stopping to get in or out; optionally: driving backwards to the right using a junction, intersection or entry / driving backwards into a parking space / parking backwards across or at an angle ) and driving , i.e. moving the motor vehicle in traffic.|
|DE||The test time is 70 minutes: connecting and disconnecting , a basic driving task (reversing around a corner to the left) and driving , i.e. moving the train in traffic.|
|D1||The test time is 75 minutes: a technical manual skill and departure control , two basic driving tasks (see class D) and driving , i.e. moving the vehicle in traffic.|
|D1E||The test time is 70 minutes: connecting and disconnecting , a basic driving task (reversing around a corner to the left) and driving , i.e. moving the train in traffic|
|T||The examination time is 60 minutes: connecting and disconnecting , a technical departure check , a basic driving task (reversing straight ahead) and driving , i.e. moving the vehicle in traffic.|
The specified examination times are minimum times according to the FeV examination guidelines . However, they are not to be equated with the pure driving times, since various administrative tasks also belong to the examination time (greeting, checking the papers, handing out the driver's license, etc.)
- Driving license ordinance (FeV)
- Guideline for the examination of applicants for a license to drive a vehicle (examination guideline)
Fitness to drive
If facts are known that call into question the fitness to drive, an expert opinion from an officially recognized assessment body for fitness to drive is required before the driver's license is issued in Germany .
Regulations in Austria
Driving license training
In order to get a driver's license, one must first complete an apprenticeship and then a driving test. The training usually takes place in a driving school . Theoretical and practical driving tests are also organized from there and held by state bodies in the driving schools.
However, there are also combined forms in which the theoretical part and only a minimal part of the practical training is completed in the driving school and the majority is carried out privately as a training drive ( L17 training ) or practice drive with private vehicles and a relative or acquaintance as a companion meets certain basic requirements. The L17 training (actually: "advanced driving license for class B") is enjoying increasing popularity, because the driver's license for class B can be acquired at the age of 17. Normally, the driver's license is only acquired at the age of 18.
As a general rule, the first driving test requires proof of training with a duration of at least 26 lessons of 45 minutes of theoretical instruction, basic instruction for all classes of driving licenses . In addition, there is a class-specific part for each desired class , which must be proven before taking the respective driving test for a certain driving license class.
The minimum training period is:
- Class A: 8 lessons
- Class B: 6 lessons
- Class B + E: 4 lessons
- Class C1: 8 lessons
- Class C: 10 lessons
- Class C (extension of C1): 4 lessons
- Class C + E / C1 + E / D + E: 6 lessons
- Class D (extension of B): 12 lessons
- Class D (extension of C): 4 lessons
- Class F: 8 lessons
Publishers and companies have now responded to this increasing digitization and offer a wide variety of learning materials such as B. mobile phone apps, so-called learning CDs, 3D driving schools (PC visualization of road traffic and various traffic situations) and online learning opportunities to prepare for the theoretical driving test.
As a general rule, the training must always include night driving, driving in local areas with heavy traffic (in urban areas) and driving in high-speed traffic (such as motorways or motorways ). If several classes are trained at the same time, the night drive is only necessary as part of the training of one class. Night drives are not required for additional training in the context of extensions to existing driving license classes.
The minimum training duration is prescribed in lessons of 45 minutes and is:
- Class A: 12 lessons, with at least 8 lessons to be carried out on roads with public transport
- Class B: 12 lessons
- Classes B and B + E: in addition to class B, 2 lessons B + E
- Grades B and C / C1: 20 lessons (8 B, 12 C / C1)
- Classes B and C / C1 + E: 22 lessons (8 B, 10 C, 4 E)
- Grades B and D: 20 lessons (8 B, 12 D)
- Classes B and C / C1 and D: 28 lessons (8 B, 8 C / C1, 8 D, 4 E)
- Class F: 4 lessons
If a driving license of classes B or C / C1 is extended to other classes, the prescribed minimum duration of driver training is:
- Class B to Class B + E: 2 lessons
- Class B to Class C / C1: 8 lessons
- Class B to classes C / C1 + E: 10 lessons (6 C / C1, 4 E)
- Class B to Class D: 8 lessons
- Class B to Class D + E: 10 lessons (6 D, 4 E)
- Class B on classes C / C1 and D: 16 lessons (8 C7C1, 8 D)
- Class B on classes C / C1 + E and D: 18 lessons (6 C / C1, 8 D, 4 E)
- Class B to Class F: 4 lessons
- Class C1 to Class C: 4 lessons
- Class C1 to Class C1 + E: 3 lessons
- Class C1 + E to class C + E: 6 lessons (3 C, 3 E)
- Class C1 to Class D: 4 lessons
- Class C1 to Class D + E: 8 lessons (4D, 4 E)
- Class C to Class C + E: 4 lessons
- Class C to Class D: 4 lessons
- Class C to Class D + E: 8 lessons (4D, 4 E)
- Class D to Class D + E: 4 lessons
First aid training
In addition to driver training, proof of having attended a first aid course of at least six hours must be provided when a driving license is issued for the first time . For classes C and D, “first aid training” (a first aid course of at least sixteen hours) is also required.
Training with the Austrian Armed Forces
As part of the basic training, all basic military servants take the 16-hour first aid course required for the driver's license. Soldiers or apprentices intended for military driving functions attend the army steering license course in the various training centers. The trainees are instructed in the army truck service so that they are able to carry out their tasks with and without a co-driver (also called "vehicle commander") and to comply with the relevant regulations. There is also the option of converting your army steering license to a civilian driving license.
From a purely legal point of view, it is possible to acquire a driving license in any member state of the EU . You only have to have your normal place of residence in the respective country for at least 185 days.
Driving test: theoretical part
The theoretical examination Only on since May 25, 1998 Computer carried out. This exam can be taken in German, English, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian or Turkish. The questions asked are divided into two groups: "General questions" (traffic signs, priority examples, rules of conduct of a general nature) and "Class-specific questions" for the respective driving license class. These questions have different scores (between 2 and 9). For class B, 56 out of 1,488 possible questions are asked. For a positive result, 80% of the total possible points must be achieved; In addition, the “class-specific questions” are assessed separately, whereby in this part 60% of the points must be achieved in classes A and B, and 80% in the other classes as well. Since April 1, 2006, simplifications have come into force for supplementary examinations for classes A, B + E or F: Only class-specific questions have to be answered for these classes. The minimum age for completing this part of the examination is: six months before the respective minimum age that is required for issuing the desired driving license (exception: L17 training and class A in connection with it).
Driving test: practical part
The practical driving test requires that the theoretical driving test has been passed. It usually begins on an area with little traffic (for example the practice area of a driving school) with the checking of the vehicle for roadworthiness and operational safety. Standardized basic driving exercises are then completed (five exercises: parallel parking, garage parking, turning, slalom, target braking), which demonstrate that you are able to control the vehicle safely. This is followed by a trip with the expert. The minimum age for completing this part of the examination is the minimum age that is prescribed for the granting of the desired driving license (exception: L17 training).
Regulations in Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein
In Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein, the first thing to do is to complete an emergency aid course. This comprises 10 hours (in Liechtenstein at least 2 × 5 hours) and costs around CHF 150. The emergency aid course card is valid for six years.
The emergency aid course ID is required for the «application for a learner's license or driver's license ». Before submitting the application, the results of the eye test must be completed by an optician in the application. The request is sent to the relevant cantonal road traffic office or to the motor vehicle inspection department of the Principality of Liechtenstein.
The theory test consists of 50 multiple choice questions . A maximum of 15 errors are allowed, otherwise the theoretical test is not passed. For a long time, the theoretical test was prepared and carried out using printed questionnaires that contained a “correction mechanism”; which is why the practice for this test was popularly referred to as "Bögelä". Many driving instructors offered similar exercise opportunities at certain times. Many processes have been digitized over the years. Today, the theoretical test is held in many places on a computer or tablet . Practice is carried out with the help of books or learning software for PCs and smartphones specially produced by the market .
Learning trips / learning driver's license
An overview of the categories can be found under.
In order for a learner's license to be issued for the first time:
- attending an emergency aid course,
- an eye test will be submitted, and
- the basic theory test will be passed.
After receiving the learner's license, but before the practical driving test, a traffic science course must be attended.
Validity of the learner's license
- Category A : The learner's license is initially valid for four months. The practical basic training must be completed within these four months. After successfully completing the basic training (eight or twelve hours), the learner's license is extended by twelve months. No accompanying person is required for learning trips.
- Category B : The learner's license is valid for 24 months. An accompanying person who is 23 years old and has had a category B driver's license for at least three years is required for learning drives. The accompanying person may no longer have the driving license on trial.
- Learning tickets are generally only valid in Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein.
- The "L" sign (white L on a blue background) must be attached to the vehicle for each learning run.
- Certain requirements can be placed on the vehicle, e.g. B. in cars the accessibility of the handbrake by the accompanying person.
- Holders of the category A and A1 learner's license must complete practical basic training within the first four months. For categories A and A, the duration is limited: twelve hours; for category A1: eight hours.
- Holders of a limited category A driver's license can have the restriction lifted on request after two years of driving experience free of complaints.
It is not compulsory to complete a certain number of driving lessons. In 2011, 65% of the driving exams were passed.
Driving license on trial in Switzerland
The driver's license has been available in Switzerland since December 2005, initially on a trial basis. The trial period lasts three years. Two further training courses must be completed within these three years before the permanent ID can be applied for. If the driver's license is withdrawn during the probationary period, it is extended by one year. After the second offense, which leads to the withdrawal of the driver's license, the license is canceled and the learner's license must be applied for again.
As of 2013, Liechtenstein does not have such a regulation, where the driver's license with an examination is valid for an unlimited period.
- Road Traffic Act (SVG)
- Ordinance on the approval of people and vehicles for road traffic ( Verkehrszulassungsverordnung , VZV)
- Road Traffic Act (SVG)
- Traffic Licensing Ordinance (VZV)
- Ordinance on the approval of driving instructors and their professional practice (Driving Instructor Ordinance , FV)
- Ordinance of April 5, 1977 on the Road Traffic Act (emergency aid courses)
- ↑ Belgium / driving licenses: drive in death , in: Der Spiegel 5/1967
- ^ ADAC price comparison 2011. ( Memento from May 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) ADAC website. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- ↑ a b c d Learner drivers fail more and more often , tagesschau.de, May 4, 2018, accessed on May 9, 2018.
- ↑ Statistics ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. of the Federal Motor Transport Authority as PDF
- ↑ See Appendix 7 No. 1.3. to FeV § 16 and 17. 
- ^ In the federal states of Berlin, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland by decree in anticipation of the 11th Amendment Regulation.
- ↑ Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure: Guidelines on changing the catalog of questions for the theoretical driving test, (announced in the Federal Gazette ), most recently BAnz AT 27.03.2017 B1 . The last changes will take effect from October 1st, 2017.
- ↑ Appendix 7 to the Driving License Ordinance
- ↑ State Law Gazette : Art. 3 Ordinance of April 5, 1977 on the Road Traffic Act
- ↑ Examples: Canton St. Gallen, Switzerland (PDF) Principality of Liechtenstein (PDF)
- ↑ fuehrerausweise.ch
- ↑ Exchange of notes from December 15, 1977 between Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein on the mutual recognition of driver's and vehicle licenses and the administrative measures
- ↑ stva.zh.ch
- ↑ Volksblatt: "Driving license on trial": Not an issue in Liechtenstein