The land map - also known as the property map or cadastral map - is a true-to-scale representation of all properties ( parcels , land , in Switzerland also the buildings ) and, together with the appraisal map , forms the part of the real estate cadastre . With its proof of the location and delimitation, it is the official map basis of the land register with its properties and thus the basis for securing property in land and for a fair property tax assessment . The cadastral maps have now been completely replaced in Germany by the Automated Property Map (ALK) and can therefore be regarded as historical.
The land map is a special case among maps, as special attention was paid to the representation of the location of property on land. Therefore, this form cannot be placed in the same historical rail as topographic maps or other maps .
There were first signs of their existence as early as 3000 BC. In the form of a discovered old Babylonian field plan. There are also references from the 2nd century BC. For land register plans in ancient China and from approx. 1700 BC. From Egypt .
The first serious surveys and mappings of properties from the Duchy of Milan at the beginning of the 18th century are known from modern times . In France, cadastral surveys began in 1790 and shortly afterwards the German states under the influence of Napoleon were also included.
In 1807/08 the peasant liberation was enforced by Freiherr vom Stein , later continued by Hardenberg . The agricultural policy disputes, known under the collective term separations , began . A map basis was required to carry out the common divisions that began in 1811 . This was created in a relatively laborious process, in that after measuring the procedural limits, a triangular network was usually laid, which was then condensed with bus bars and the severance pay limits could be determined and mapped. The result was an island- shaped Brouillon map . The dimensions were recorded both in this brouillon map and in the border register belonging to the recess . Two copies of the finished map were made, one was added to the recess as the so-called 1st clean map, the 2nd clean map was later sent to the land registry office. In 1861 the standardization of the property tax systems and the creation of the cadastre were brought about by law . Within a very short time, a comprehensive map series had to be created for the area of the six eastern provinces of Prussia . That could not be done by remeasuring alone. So primarily existing maps were used and drawn. This included separation, forest , domain or estate cards . Due to this mix of origins, the quality of the maps is of very different quality, which later in the course of the ALK creation should cause great difficulties in adjusting the edge of the island maps .
The sheet format of the new district clearing cards to be produced was 1000 × 666 mm, exceptionally also 500 × 666 mm. First and foremost, a right-angled frame, precisely defined in terms of dimensions on a scale of 1: 5000, should be placed on the paper in order to determine any warpage that may occur later. Then a strip of white canvas was sewn to the edge of the paper. Only then did the mapping and design of the map begin. The continuation, d. H. Keeping current by taking into account changes that had occurred to the parcels was initially carried out by producing map excerpts - so-called supplementary cards - in which, for example, the survey results were mapped when the property was divided. Here only the affected section was drawn from the clean map and the new limit entered together with the locally determined measurement numbers. In the absence of copying procedures, they also served as card extracts for distribution. They were made until the 1920s.
In 1881 it was instructed to create second demarcation clear maps by re-mapping, in which the changes were then entered directly. Boundaries, boundary signs and parcel numbers that were no longer needed were crossed / deleted in red ink, new ones added in red. These cards remained in service until 1936. Then the realm cadastre was introduced and with it terms that are still in use today: parcels became parcels, map sheets became corridors, the field mark is called a district, etc. The maps were drawn according to new drawing regulations and the parcels were renumbered. In addition, with the cadastral map as a preliminary stage, the German basic map was developed. It is a topographical map on a scale of 1: 5000 as a framework map with additional cadastral boundaries. By the end of the war, however, this could only be completed to ten percent of the area of Germany.
In the kingdoms of Bavaria , land- wide surveys began in 1801 and in Württemberg in 1818, which formed the basis for mapping the cadastral maps . In addition, there were technical innovations such as the invention of lithography by Alois Senefelder , which enabled new ways to reproduce the map documents. The actual cadastral survey began in Bavaria around 1808 on a scale of 1: 5000, for the localities 1: 2500. Baden began with the cadastral surveying in 1812, Württemberg did this in 1820. The result is a frame map series in these three countries.
The cards were initially continued, renewed from 1952 and renumbered again. After drawing up a copy was made on cardboard. This meant that there was a mother's break for duplication by means of a blueprint process and a clean card (official card). Both were continued until the changeover to the automated property map.
The individual land maps are produced either as a sheet cut of a frame map or as an island map for a corridor . An island map last had a sheet size of 1000 × 707 mm. There may be supplements, which usually show a larger part of the hallway on a larger scale. Furthermore, special drawings or enlargements are often found on a free part of the sheet or on a special sheet. There situations are shown that could not be mapped directly in the corridor due to contradictions or in terms of scale. In places it can also happen that part of the hallway would protrude from the sheet. This was then usually “cut off” along parcel boundaries and displayed on a free part of the sheet. The cut boundaries were then provided with the word “connection” on the cut off and on the main part.
Decisive for the choice of the map scale are the local conditions and the average size of the parcels that have to be displayed and not least the size of the corridor. The scale 1: 500 or 1: 1000 often makes sense in urban areas, in the former Baden 1: 1500 was chosen, in Württemberg it was 1: 2500 and occasionally also 1: 1250 in local areas, but 1: 5000 as in Bavaria is also closed Find. Scales between 1: 500, usually 1: 3000 to 1: 4000, come from what was then Prussia .
The land map basically contains the representation of:
- Parcels with their boundaries and numbers
- District and community boundaries
- Buildings with their numbers and use
- Types of use of the soil
- The leaf frame with field number, district designation , scale and origin
The presentation of:
- Boundary and survey points with their numbers
- Topographical information and slopes
- Hedges , fences and walls
- In the past, the owners of the parcels were partly registered
If supply and disposal facilities as well as additional topographical information are included in the map display of the land map, this is called the city map. The depiction of the city map is the exclusive responsibility of the municipality and is not a mandatory task of the real estate cadastre.
Replacement of the analog land map by digital data management
From the 1990s to the present day, work has been carried out on converting the land maps to digital form. The result is the automated property map (ALK) or the digital land map (DFK) for the state of Bavaria. It is scale-free, object-oriented and covers the area of an entire federal state. As a result, the property map is free of sheet cuts and can be easily output and printed out in different scales. This also facilitates the continuation work.
- P. Bredow: The cadastral system - history, structure, administration. Publishing house of the German Labor Front, Berlin 1937.
- P. Stichling: The Prussian separation cards 1817–1881, their legal and technical significance. (= Wichmann Collection. Volume 7). Herbert Wichmann publishing house, Berlin 1907.
- E. Lehmann: On the history of field measurements on the territory of the German Democratic Republic. In: Surveying technology. 34, Berlin 1986.
- Schermer: General description of the creation and value of the cadastral cards. Handwritten manuscript, 1929.
- VIII. Instruction of October 25, 1881 for the procedure for the renewal of the maps and books of the land tax cadastre together with the changes that occurred up to 1905. 3rd edition.
- Circular decree of the Reich Minister of the Interior of October 1, 1941 regarding the German base map 1: 5000 and cadastral map. Reichsamt für Landesaufnahme, Berlin 1941.
- Baden-Württemberg Land Surveying Office: 150 Years of Württemberg Land Surveying. Stuttgart 1968,