Hinkmar from Reims

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Hinkmar von Reims , Latin Hincmarus Remensis also Incmarus or Ingmarus (* around 800/810; † December 21 or 23, 882 in Épernay ) was Archbishop of Reims , church politician of the West Franconian Empire , "publicist", historiographer and canon lawyer.


Hinkmar was born during the lifetime of Emperor Charlemagne (768–814). He was of noble origin and enjoyed his spiritual training in the monastery of Saint-Denis , before he came to the court of Emperor Louis the Pious (814-840) (822) through the mediation of his abbot Hilduin of Saint-Denis († 855/861 ). There Hinkmar got to know the political imponderables and instabilities of the Franconian empire , which finally led to the fratricidal fights ( Battle of Fontenoy 841) and the treaty of partition of Verdun after the death of the emperor (840) . Hinkmar became part of King Charles the Bald (840 / 843–877), Ludwig's youngest son.

The King of West Franconia made Hinkmar Archbishop of Reims in April 845 after his predecessor Ebo, who had been deposed in 835 and temporarily restituted in 840/841 , had to vacate the Archbishop's chair. Resistance from Ebo's supporters was overcome, and Hinkmar soon assumed a leading position in the West Franconian episcopate. The restoration of Reims church property, the establishment of episcopal and metropolitan authority and the adoption of diocesan legislation (852) strengthened his influence. In the predestination dispute, although not completely familiar with the doctrine of predestination and grace of the church father Augustine († 430) , Hinkmar turned against the Saxon monk Gottschalk von Orbais , not least in the indictment at the Synod of Quierzy (849) , whom he then up to his death in 869 imprisoned in Hautvillers monastery . When the East Franconian King Ludwig the German (840 / 843–876) invaded West Franconia (858), he organized the political resistance and stood up for Charles the Bald in the country that was torn by invasions and revolts by the Normans . Since 860, Hinkmar sat in the marital dispute of the Lorraine King Lothar II (855-869) against his divorce plans and had a powerful ally in Pope Nicholas I (863-869) in this regard. In other respects, such as the disputes Hinkmar with his suffragans Rothad II of Soissons (833-869) and Hinkmar of Laon (858-871), the Pope turned against the Archbishop.

When King Lothar II died (869), Charles the Bald, with the support of Hinkmar, occupied Lorraine, but had to cede the eastern areas to Ludwig the German in the Treaty of Meerssen (870). Hinkmar rejected the policy of Charlemagne to achieve the dignity of the emperor after the death of the Italian king and emperor Ludwig II (855-875). The West Franconian ruler was initially successful (imperial coronation in 876), but died in 877 on his second journey to Italy . At the Synod of Ponthion, the Archbishop of Reims resisted the creation of a papal vicariate for the areas west and north of the Alps, which was decided at the time of the imperial coronation.

After the death of Charles the Bald, Hinkmar supported his son Ludwig II the Stammler (877–879) and his grandson Ludwig III. (879-882), the winner of the Battle of Saucourt against the Normans 881 ( Ludwigslied ), and Karlmann . The last year of Hinkmar's life was filled with the dispute over the election of bishops in Beauvais (881/882). The Archbishop died while fleeing from the Normans when they attacked Reims, on December 21 or 23, 882 in Épernay . He was buried in the Saint-Remi monastery in Reims.


Hinkmar's ecclesiastical activities are reflected in a series of tracts on current events. These include: Hinkmar's letters to Ludwig the German (858), letters to bishops and popes, council resolutions. Hinkmar's theological textbooks are: his predestination writing (853) and his writing on the expression "trina deitas" (853), legal opinions: the writings on the divorce of King Lothar II (858, 860, etc.), the " quaternions " on the church property ( 868), the text on the law of the metropolitans. The kingship and the relationship between church and king ( doctrine of two powers ) treat, among other things, “On the person of the king and the royal service” and De ordine palatii . The outgrowth of Hinkmar's historical interest are the Annales Bertiniani , which the Archbishop continued from 861 to 882 and praised his own deeds in the third person; the Vita Remigii of his predecessor Remigius von Reims († approx. 533) was a hagiographic work .


The different forms of the name (Hincmarus, Incmarus, Ingmarus) can be found in the Annales Bertiniani . While Prudentius von Troyes still writes Ingmarus, Hinkmar himself uses the Latinized version Hincmarus.



  • Hincmari Rhemensis archiepiscopi opera omnia. Juxta editionem Sirmondianam ad prelum revocata, varia accessere monumenta quae suppeditarunt Surii, Pertzii, etc. , ed. by Jacques Paul Migne . 2 volumes. Paris 1852.
  • Epistolae Karolini aevi (VI) Hincmari archiepiscopi Remensis epistolae (The letters of Archbishop Hinkmar of Reims), part 1. Edited by Ernst Perels . Berlin 1939 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , digitized version )
  • Epistolae Karolini aevi (VI) Hincmari archiepiscopi Remensis epistolae (The letters of Archbishop Hinkmar of Reims) , part 2 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica . Epistolae ). Edited by Rudolf Schieffer with contributions by Ernst Perels and Nelly Ertl. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2018, ISBN 978-3-447-10074-8 .
  • De ordine palatii , ed. by Thomas Groß and Rudolf Schieffer, Monumenta Germaniae Historica , Leges, Fontes iuris Germanici antiqui in usum scholarum separatim editi, Volume 3. Hahn, Hanover 1980, ISBN 3-7752-5127-8 .
  • De divortio Lotharii regis et Theutberga regina , ed. by Letha Böhringer, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Leges, Concilia, Volume 4.1. Hanover 1992, ISBN 3-7752-5327-0 .
  • The pamphlets of Hinkmar of Reims and Hinkmar of Laon. 869-871 , ed. by Rudolf Schieffer, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Leges, Concilia, Volume 4.2. Hahn, Hannover 2003, ISBN 3-7752-5355-6 .
  • Collectio de ecclesiis et capellis , ed. by Martina Stratmann , Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Leges, Fontes iuris Germanici antiqui in usum scholarum separatim editi, Volume 14, Hannover 1990, ISBN 3-7752-5332-7 .
  • De cavendis vitiis et virtutibus exercendis , ed. by Doris Nachtmann, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, sources on the intellectual history of the Middle Ages, volume 16. Munich 1998, ISBN 3-88612-076-7 .


  • Friedrich Wilhelm BautzHinkmar, Archbishop of Reims. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 882-885.
  • Johannes HellerHinkmar . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 12, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1880, pp. 438-456.
  • Klaus Vielhaber:  Hinkmar. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 9, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-428-00190-7 , p. 184 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Rudolf Schieffer: Hinkmar of Reims. In: Lexikon des Mittelalters , Vol. 5 (1991) Col. 29f.
  • Karl-Ulrich Betz: Hinkmar von Reims, Nikolaus I., Pseudo-Isidore. Franconian regional church and Roman claim to power in the 9th century. Bonn 1965.
  • Jakob Schmidt: Hinkmar's “De ordine palatii” and its sources . Diss., Frankfurt am Main 1962.
  • Gerhard Schmitz: De presbiteris criminosis. A memorandum to Archbishop Hinkmar of Reims on delinquent clerics . (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Studies and Texts, Volume 34). Hahn, Hannover 2004, ISBN 3-7752-5734-9 .
  • Olaf Schneider: Archbishop Hinkmar and the consequences. The four hundred year journey of historical memories from Reims to Trier. Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-020056-0 .
  • Heinrich Schrörs: Hinkmar, Archbishop of Reims. His life and his writings . Herder, Freiburg 1884 (reprint: Olms, Hildesheim 1967).
  • Martina Stratmann : Hinkmar von Reims as administrator of the diocese and church province . (Sources and research on law in the Middle Ages, Volume 6). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1991, ISBN 3-7995-6086-6 .
  • Martina Stratmann: On the reception of Hinkmar von Reims by Bernhard von Hildesheim and Bernold von Konstanz . In: German Archive for Research into the Middle Ages 44 (1988), pp. 170–180.

Web links

predecessor Office successor
Ebo Archbishop of Reims
Fulko the Venerable

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Matthias Schrör: Metropolitan violence and the turning point in the history of the pope (=  historical studies 494 ). Matthiesen, Husum 2009, ISBN 978-3-7868-1494-8 , pp. 60-74 .