Howell Edmunds Jackson

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Howell Edmunds Jackson

Howell Edmunds Jackson (born April 8, 1832 in Paris , Tennessee , † August 8, 1895 in West Meade , Tennessee) was an American lawyer and politician of the Democratic Party , who represented Tennessee in the US Senate and was both a judge in the US Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States ( US Supreme Court was).


Attorney and US Senator

After attending West Tennessee College, he studied between 1849 and 1854 at the University of Virginia and then completed a postgraduate degree in law at the Law School of Cumberland University , which he graduated in 1856. After his legal admission in the state of Tennessee, he was a lawyer in Jackson in 1856 before he settled in Memphis in 1859 and founded a law firm there. There, the future brigadier general in the Civil War, Alexander William Campbell, was one of his partners.

After the outbreak of the Civil War, he worked for the Confederate States between 1861 and 1862 as a recipient of confiscated property in the western district of Tennessee. After a subsequent renewed practice as a lawyer, he became a judge in Tennessee in 1875.

After he was elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives as a representative of the Democrats in 1880 , he was then elected a member of the US Senate for Tennessee as Senator Class 1 . As such, he was a successor to James E. Bailey in the US Senate from March 4, 1881 until his resignation on April 14, 1886. To this was James Clark McReynolds , who later became a judge on the US Supreme Court, his private secretary. After his resignation, the former Democratic Congressman Washington C. Whitthorne was appointed by William B. Bate , the Governor of Tennessee , to succeed him as US Senator for Tennessee.

Judges in the US Court of Appeals and US Supreme Court

The reason for his resignation was the appointment of judge at the then US Circuit Court by US President Grover Cleveland to succeed John Baxter . After the judicial reform through the Judiciary Act of 1891 , he was appointed judge on the US Court of Appeals for the sixth district court in 1891 .

After the death of Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar on January 23, 1893, Jackson was appointed by US President Benjamin Harrison on February 18, 1893 as an associate judge at the US Supreme Court and held this office until his death on August 8, 1895. During his activity as Associate Justice he worked on the judgment on the fundamental decision on the Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895) with. It had about by the Supreme Court Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act introduced the Income Tax Act of 1894 ( Income Tax Act of 1894 to decide). The court ruled that the income taxes introduced by this law on interest, dividends, and rent are direct taxes and that the law violates the United States Constitution because the state must be levied in proportion to the population. Jackson joined Henry Billings Brown and John Marshall Harlan in the minority opinion formulated by Edward Douglass White junior , which held the income tax law to be constitutional.

Jackson's successor was the previous judge at the New York Court of Appeals , Rufus Wheeler Peckham , after his burial at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Nashville .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. "No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration in before directed to be taken." Article I, Section 9 of the United States Constitution
  2. ^ Melville W. Fuller : POLLOCK v. FARMERS 'LOAN & TRUST CO., 158 US 601 (1895). April 8, 1895, accessed December 30, 2007 .