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Iłowo-Osada municipal coat of arms
Iłowo-Osada (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Warmia-Masuria
Powiat : Działdowo
Area : 103.80  km²
Geographic location : 53 ° 10 '  N , 20 ° 18'  E Coordinates: 53 ° 10 '1 "  N , 20 ° 17' 35"  E
Residents : see Gmina
Postal code : 13-240
Telephone code : (+48) 23
License plate : NDZ
Economy and Transport
Rail route : Nasielsk – Działdowo
Gminatype: Rural community
Residents: 7203
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Community number  ( GUS ): 2803032
Administration (as of 2009)
Community leader : Jan Zygmunt Przyborski
ul.Wyzwolenia 5 13-240 Iłowo-Osada
Website : ugilowo-osada.bip.org.pl

Iłowo-Osada [ iˈwɔvɔ - ɔˈsada ] (German Illowo ) is a place in the Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship .

Geographical location

The village is located in the historical region of East Prussia , about eleven kilometers southeast of the town of Soldau ( Działdowo ) and 70 kilometers southeast of Allenstein ( Olsztyn ). The surrounding landscape belongs to the south of the Oberland and is characterized by forest areas and elevations up to 190 meters. The Mławka , which belongs to the Vistula catchment area, flows south of the village .


Illowo in East Prussia , southwest of Allenstein and Neidenburg and southeast of Soldau , on a map from 1908.
Village church
Residential houses
Former school building that was used as a transit camp during the Nazi era .

The place appears for the first time in the 14th century under the names Gilowo, Gylowo and Jiłowo. The origin of its name comes from the Prussian words "ilas" (very dark, pitch-dark) and "gile" (acorn). Its emergence is related to the settlement of the previously uninhabited Sassenland primeval forest area by the Teutonic Order in the first half of the 14th century. After the border with Polish Mazovia had been manifested in 1343 , Iłowo was right on the border of the Order. The place was initially administered by the Commandery Christburg , from 1341 by the Commandery Osterode . In 1403 it came into the possession of the Polish knight Piotr Bażyński. The great Tannenberg Battle of 1410 took place not far from the town, and legend has it that Lithuanian deserters of the Polish army fled via the Iłowoer Mühlensteig. A noble family named itself after Iłowo and ruled here until the 17th century. A Stanislaus von Iłowo is documented for 1602. Later the landlords changed in quick succession.


During the first division of Poland in 1772, Iłowo came to Prussia and was given the place name Illowo. The village was assigned to the Neidenburg district and the main office in Soldau . In 1785 Illowo is described as a noble estate with 13 hearths (households); owned by a branch of the family v. Gersdorf is located. The inhabitants of Illowos lived mainly from agriculture and forestry, in 1820 ten farms were registered in the place. In May 1847 a successor was sought for the school teacher position in Illowo.

The economic structure changed significantly with the construction of the Gdansk - Warsaw railway line, to which Illowo was connected on September 1, 1877. The station was built as a border station, and this made the place an important transhipment and trading center for the region, which in 1885 had 726 inhabitants, mostly Polish. At the beginning of the 20th century there was a customs office, a post office, a Protestant school and two distilleries in Illowo next to the border station. Shortly before the First World War , the Nobel company set up a petroleum warehouse. This was the target of a Russian attack in December 1914 and was destroyed. All public buildings including the railway station and numerous residential buildings were also destroyed.

In the Polish Corridor 1920–1939

After the end of the First World War, Illowo had to be returned to Poland due to the provisions of the Versailles Treaty in 1920 for the purpose of establishing the Polish Corridor . On January 16, 1920 at 6 a.m., the last German border guard left the place. The Poles reintroduced the Polish place name Iłowo. During the Polish-Soviet War , the Red Army occupied the place from August 12-14, 1920. In 1927 the construction of a neo-baroque church began. At that time the village had a general six-class school with about 500 students, a train station, a railway workshop, an electricity company and a sawmill, as well as a distillery. In 1931 there were 2793 inhabitants.

In 1934, the Polish state government unilaterally terminated the minority protection treaty concluded in Versailles on June 28, 1919 between the Allied and Associated Main Powers and Poland .

Second World War 1939–1945

As a result of the attack on Poland in 1939, the confiscated Polish territory came under international law to the German Reich . On September 2, 1939, Illowo was occupied by German troops. The residents of Polish nationality were temporarily placed under arrest. The village was initially incorporated into the district of Soldau , newly created by the German government , which was later transferred to the district of Neidenburg. A transit camp for Polish and Russian prisoners was maintained in Illowo from 1941 to 1945. In January 1945 the Red Army liberated the region. In the summer of 1945 Illowo was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power, along with the southern half of East Prussia and all of West Prussia .

Population development until 1945

year Residents Remarks
1816 0 132
1852 0 231
1858 0 253 of which 153 Protestants and 100 Catholics (no Jews)
1885 0 726
1905 1,193
1931 2,793


Railroad keeper's house on the Gdansk - Warsaw railway line

The East Prussian neighboring city of Działdowo ( Soldau ) in the north and the Polish neighboring city of Mława ( Mielau ) in the southeast can be reached via a subordinate road.

The village is on the Gdansk – Warsaw railway line .

Gmina Iłowo-Osada

The following localities belong to the Iłowo-Osada rural community:

Polish name German name
(until 1920 and 1939–45)
Polish name German name
(until 1920 and 1939–45)
Polish name German name
(until 1920 and 1939–45)
Białuty Bialutten * Iłowo-Osada Illowo * Narcyma Narcyma *
Białuty Kolonia Iłowo-Wieś Pruski Prusken
Brodowo Brodau Janowo Hansburg Purgałki Purgalken
Chorus Chorus app Narzymskie Colony Sochy Sochen
Dwukoły Zworaden Kraszewo Kraschewo Szczepka Sczepka
Dźwierznia Dzwiersnia Mansfeldy Mansfeld Wierzbowo Wiersbau
Gajówki Gajowken Mławka *** *** = Polish before 1920
  • Renaming was planned for the following localities, but these did not come into force before the end of the war: Bialutten = Wildenberg; Illowo = Illau; Narcym = savage.

Son of the community

Web links

Commons : Iłowo-Osada  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
  2. ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part I: Topography of East Prussia . Königsberg / Leipzig 1785, p. 73.
  3. Oeffentlicher Anzeiger to the Official Gazette of the Prussian Government in Königsberg of June 9, 1847, p. 176, item 29.
  4. Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 2: G – Ko , Halle 1821, p. 256, item 880.
  5. ^ Kraatz: Topographical-statistical manual of the Prussian state . Berlin 1856, p. 264.
  6. Adolf Schlott : Topographical-statistical overview of the government district of Königsberg . Hartung, Königsberg 1861, p. 176, paragraph 64.
  7. ^ A b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Neidenburg district (Polish: Nidzica). (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  8. http://wiki-de.genealogy.net/Illowo_(Kreis_Neidenburg)