International Society for Krishna Consciousness
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (abbreviated "ISKCON" from the English original name "International Society for Krishna-Consciousness"), better known in the West as the Hare Krishna Movement , is an organization founded in 1966 by Abhay Charan Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada . She wants to spread the Krishna consciousness in the western countries and belongs to the Brahma-Madhva- Gaudiya- Sampradaya , also known as the Gaudiya-Vaishnava school of faith. It is variously classified as the so-called New Religious Movement , which spread among the hippies in Europe in the 1970s . Its headquarters are in Mayapur in the Indian state of West Bengal .
16th century: emergence of the Krishna movement
The conquest and rule of India by Islamic empires since the 12th century had a strong impact on the Hindu social order. Religious teachers reacted to this development, including Chaitanya from Bengal around 1500 . He renewed the worship of the highest god Krishna through a piety movement that transcended caste and religious boundaries and included people of various origins. The most important characteristic of this movement was the ecstatic chanting (“ chanting ”, “ sankirtan ”) of the mantra Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare . Hare is the vocative of the word "Harā" - God's energy, by which Krishna's consort Radha is meant. Rama literally means "joy" and denotes the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu . Krishna is a Hindu deity and means among other things "the all-attractive". According to the Brhan-naradiya Purana, in the fourth world age of strife and hypocrisy ( Kali-Yuga ), in which the performance of religious rituals is no longer possible, there is no better way to salvation than chanting this mantra, whose vibrations remove the earth from the purify material defilement and have a missionary effect.
Chaitanya already achieved divine status among his followers during his life. He is seen by them as the common avatar of Radha, Krishna's eternal companion, and Krishna himself.
19th Century: Responses to Christianity
In the 19th century the Anglican colonial rulers of British India influenced some Hindu currents. As a reaction to Christianity appearing on mission and claiming exclusivity , an attempt was made to establish the Bhagavad Gita as the " Bible of Hinduism" and to create a Krishna religion that is based on Chaitanya as the " Messiah " and acts as a missionary to the outside world. In his essay Das Bhagavata . Bhaktivinoda Thakura describes his philosophy, his ethics and his theology as the “ Savior of the East” in analogy to Jesus Christ, the mystic Chaitanya . Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati, the son of Bhaktivinoda Thakura, founded the order Gaudiya Math (Order of the Gaudiya Vaishnavas ) . The purpose of the foundation was to spread the religion of Krishna "all over the world". However, since most Hindus see India as a “holy land” and therefore left it less often in earlier times, the Krishna / Chaitanya religion was temporarily restricted to India.
The Hindu teacher AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada went to the United States of America in 1965 . He was traveling on a cargo ship with little personal luggage but three large boxes of his writings. He founded ISKCON in New York in 1966 , citing Bhaktsiddhanta Saraswati Thakura and went to California , the center of dropouts, esotericists and hippies at the time , where his message was met with open ears. American society was in a state of upheaval ( Vietnam War , women's rights , civil rights movement ); the general interest in Far Eastern religions was high. ISKCON's teachings and their public appearance had a major impact on pop culture. The Hare Krishna mantra became part of the lyrics of pop songs (for example in songs by George Harrison , Boy George and Stevie Wonder and in the musical Hair ). The influence was particularly strong in hardcore punk and the straight edge movement. From America the ISKCON spread as a big city religion all over the world. The first German Hare Krishna temple was founded in Hamburg in 1969 .
After Prabhupada's death in 1977, eleven, then further successors were appointed to head the movement as the Governing Body Commission . One of Prabhupada's private secretaries, Robert Campagnola , headed the Northern and Eastern European branch of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust after Prabhupada's death and was one of those who grew it from a backyard company to a major publisher that helped spread the movement's ideas. Groups like the Science of Identity Foundation also split off .
Structure of ISKCON
While still alive, Prabhupada set up a multi-person body - the Governing Body Commission (GBC) - which, through majority decisions, works out the main direction and strategies of ISKCON on an international level. This happens in cooperation with the spiritual authorities ( gurus ) and the regional representatives of ISKCON. In addition, the GBC discusses theological issues on the basis of the Vedas and represents the highest authority in the administrative level of the ISKCON. Over the years, after several changes, an extensive and nowadays more decentralized administration was created for the ISKCON, the growing one Gave organization an authority structure.
The temple communities and parishioners hold festivals such as the Ratha Yatra , which is celebrated at different times in many cities around the world. Occasionally one also sees parish and order members singing and playing musical instruments at so-called “Harinams”, sometimes supported by loudspeakers; they either sit like street musicians in pedestrian zones or walk past busy places.
In general it can be said that the member turnover at ISKCON is quite high. There are probably no more followers in Germany today than in the 1960s and 1970s. Externally, however, they are no longer so noticeable due to missionary activities and external characteristics (Indian clothing). Most of them are employed today and behave accordingly.
- According to the basic conviction of many followers of Vishnuism , the individual self ( Atman ) is in a relationship of loving devotion to Vishnu or Krishna. This is known as bhakti yoga .
- According to the teachings of the Vishnuit religious school Gaudiya Vaishnava (to which the ISKCON belongs) founded by Chaitanya, this attitude can be expressed in five forms ( rasas ). These forms are: neutrality, servitude, friendship, parental care, and conjugal love.
- The atman finds its (not yet revealed) original relationship with Krishna ( svarupa ) by following the path of a pure devotee of Krishna and serving him with devotion. At the right time (with the appropriate qualification) Krishna then reveals the original position of the soul in question.
The holy scriptures of the Hindus are interpreted according to this central idea. For example, in Bhagavad-gītā, Prabhupada translates as it is the Sanskrit word bhakti , which means "devotion", as "devotional service". He expressly uses this translation and not the word “love” in order to avoid a stray into speculative interpretations.
From the point of view of the Vaishnavas, devotional service is an integral part of Bhakti-Yoga. In the Srimad-Bhagavatam it is explained in the seventh Kanto, chapter 5, verse 23:
“To hear and chant about Sri Vishnu's transcendental holy name, about his form, about his qualities, about his possessions and about his games, to remember them, to offer reverence to the Lord with sixteen kinds of accessories, to offer prayers to the Lord To become His servant, to regard the Lord as his best friend and to give everything to Him (in other words, to serve Him with body, mind and words) - these nine processes are recognized as pure devotional service. "
Srila Prabhupada, in his explanation of this verse, writes: “If one simply considers oneself an eternal servant of Krishna, one can achieve complete success even if one does not practice any other process of devotional service, if only by being an eternal servant Krishnas feels, one can perform all nine processes of devotional service. ”While“ dasyam ”denotes the mental attitude of a servant,“ sevanam ”stands for all the auspicious services that the devotee offers out of love to Sri Krishna in order to satisfy Him, for the pure one The devotee is free from selfish motives and his only desire is to please Sri Krishna.
Central statements of faith:
- There is a god. This God is personal and has an infinite number of names and extensions. His most familiar name is "Krishna"; in Chaitanya Krishna shows himself to be a perfect servant of God.
- Living beings are tiny parts of God. Their real purpose is to reawaken their love and individual relationship with God.
- To do this, believers try to meet Krishna in meditation on the sound of his names.
- In order for this meditation to develop its full potential, it is recommended to follow certain purity laws, in particular: abstaining from meat, fish and egg consumption, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, coffee and tea, gambling and sexuality (except in marriage and exclusively for Conceiving children).
The main form of worship is the common singing of Sanskrit mantras, mainly the so-called mahamantra :
"Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna,
Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare,
Hare Rama, Hare Rama,
Rama Rama, Hare Hare."
This singing is called chanting or sankirtan. 16 rounds of 108 repetitions each are prescribed daily. To count the repetitions, each believer has a prayer chain (a so-called mala ), which is put in a bag for protection.
Sankirtan works on the principle of “ call and answer ”, that is, a singer sings a phrase in Sanskrit, which is then repeated by the choir . The sankirtan is usually accompanied by characteristic Indian musical instruments such as harmonium , karatala (small cymbals ) and mridangam (an elongated double-headed drum that can be hung around). Sankirtan begins with praise for Chaitanya and his associates, which usually reads: "Shri Krishna Chaitanya / Prabhu Nityananda / Shri Advaita / Gadadhara / Shri Vasadi / gaura-bhakta-vrinda". This is usually followed by the Mahamantra or praise for Srila Prabhupadas (“Prabhupad, Prabhupad, Prabhupad Jaya Jaya Prabhupad”). Songs that contain more words can also be sung (according to the “call and answer” principle). These Sanskrit songs are known as " bhajans ".
Sankirtan takes an average of 1½ to 2 hours. In front of the sankirtan, an altar is often decorated with lights, flowers (wreaths), incense sticks and the like. On the altar there are pictures and altar figures (murtis), which represent different forms of Krishna, for example Jagannatha or a Shaligram Shila , possibly with his companion Radha . There are also representations of avatars such as Rama or Narasimha , Chaitanya and his associates, as well as Prabhupada and the line of gurus from which Prabhupada comes. The images and shapes are considered “transcendental”; that is, they are considered "alive".
During the sankirtan, prepared vegetarian food is offered to the characters. The consecrated food is called prasadam . The foods accepted by God are considered sacred. The consumption of the sacred food leads to an encounter with Krishna and also frees unbelievers from all sins .
After the completion of Sankirtan, one of Prabhupada's works is read, such as his commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita ( Bhagavad-gītā as it is ) and the Bhagavatam . The verse is commented on by the speaker and there is an opportunity to ask questions. After the “sermon” there is sometimes a little chant or a puja , followed by the distribution of the sacrificial food to the participants.
An important form of “worship” is the “distribution” of books and magazines, as this form of mission is considered effective. Books may not be read today, but they are generally not thrown away. In this way, books can have their effect at any point in time.
In ISKCON there are different ways to participate. Essentially, a distinction is made between order members and parishioners. At an initiation ceremony, members of the order vow to follow a minimum spiritual standard, while parishioners adapt their lifestyle to the recommendations of tradition according to the possibilities and individual inclinations and support ISKCON as best they can. Religious life is not limited to life in the monastery-like temple community, but can also be practiced within one's own four walls (mostly with family). So there are also many married order members, these are called grihasthas. In addition to Brahmacharis living in ISKCON temples, there are also monks who, after a strict examination process and during a further initiation ceremony, vowed lifelong celibacy ( sannyasis ).
In essence, Order members vow to adhere to the following rules:
- Chanting the “Hare Krishna Maha mantra” 1728 times daily (16 rounds on the traditional prayer chain with 108 pearls), preferably in the morning hours
- Restriction to sacrificed vegetarian food
- Refrain from intoxicants (including alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, stimulating tea and chocolate). On the other hand, Krishna is said to have chewed betel himself .
- Refraining from sexual intercourse except for the conjugal conception of children who are brought up krishna-consciously
- Avoid capital speculation and gambling
Essentially, care is taken that the diet corresponds as closely as possible to the teachings of Ayurveda . Order members should use their time as much as possible for the order service and should refrain from activities and things that are considered to be contrary to the yoga process.
At the inauguration, the members of the order are given names corresponding to the spiritual tradition. Initiate candidates have the designation Bhakta (for male candidates) or Bhaktin (for female candidates) in front of their first names. Bhakta means something like "devoted servant".
Community members (the vast majority of ISKCON members, approx. 90%) live the tradition in an individual way.
Until the 1980s, ISKCON took a more conservative attitude towards women, children and families. Women were expected to play a “domestic” role. Marriages were arranged . Affection and affection in general were seen as signs of "attachment to the material world". As a result of the rebellion of former Gurukula students, reform efforts have begun in the community in this regard since the 1990s and many of them have already been implemented today.
Specific fasting days and holidays of Hinduism with a Vishnuit character are observed. Fasting takes place especially on the eleventh day after the full moon and on the eleventh day after the new moon ( Ekadashi days). In particular, Chaitanya's birthday (Gaura Purnima) is celebrated in March, Krishna's birthday ( Janmashtami ) at the end of August / beginning of September and Prabhupada's birthday (September 1, 1896).
Controversy over the effects of repeated mantra chants
Regarding the prolonged repetition of the mantra, critics note that, like many forms of monotonous repetition, it can have a mind-altering effect. Similar to the preparation for hypnosis, the "waking part" of consciousness is "put to sleep" through monotonous repetition and a psychedelic state is brought about. In individual cases, meditation can be misused to convey information directly into the subconscious and thereby possibly to exercise so-called consciousness control (see suggestion ). Such theses surfaced mainly in the 1970s in the USA, where newly emerging religious movements were publicly opposed by supporters of "deprogramming"; however, many scholars and scholars repeatedly expressed strong doubts and criticism of the controversial claims and actions of the "deprogrammers".
In this context, many religious scholars spoke out in favor of ISKCON and defended it on the one hand against the so-called “brainwashing” allegations and on the other hand stated that ISKCON was a representative of an old religious tradition. According to an article by Stern (Sept. 2006), recent scientific studies and clinical tests suggest that mantra meditation improves and reduces stress on individual brain functions over longer periods of time.
ISKCON operates several ecological farm projects around the world. In Germany there has been such a community in Jandelsbrunn in Bavaria since 1982 with the only Narasimha temple in Europe.
Particular attention is paid to the protection of the cow , as it is also required in the holy scriptures of Hinduism . In contrast to conventional livestock farming, suckler cow and calf are not separated from each other; Cows or bulls are not killed even if they are sick or old. In the USA, for example, these efforts are being promoted by the "International Society for Cow Protection", which, according to its own statement, wants to show an alternative to conventional agriculture.
In Great Britain, there was a sensational incident in the media in December 2007: The British animal welfare organization RSPCA administered a fatal injection to the cow "Gangotri", which was kept on an ISKCON farm, without informing the farm operators in advance, as previously agreed.
Cooperation with educational institutions
In addition to preaching activities at schools and universities, ISKCON works with various universities. There are some representatives of the organization who work as lecturers at universities , for example at the “ Oxford Center for Hindu Studies” or at the “ Chinese University of Hong Kong ”.
The University of Wales, Lampeter , together with ISKCON , offers the Vaishnava Theology course; the training takes place at the "Bhaktivedanta College", a facility of the organization in the Ardennes in Belgium.
ISKCON itself operates elementary and secondary schools in various parts of the world, partly with government support .
In addition, the establishment of Great Britain's first state-funded Hindu school under the leadership of ISKCON has been achieved; this was opened in September 2008 in London.
Some ISKCON supporters with academic degrees founded the Bhaktivedanta Institute in San Francisco and Mumbai while the founder was still alive . This is an association of scientists who represent the concept of the Vedic doctrine of creation on the basis of "intelligent design" in science.
The Bhaktivedanta Institute attracted attention for two international symposia on the topic of “Compatibility of Religion and Science”, in which several Nobel Prize winners and the Dalai Lama participated and for a series of publications on the difference between matter and consciousness, e. B. Mechanistic and non-mechanistic Science by Thompson and the bestseller Forbidden Archeology by Michael Cremo.
In 1997, the Bhaktivedanta Institute, in cooperation with the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, a technical university in India, introduced the first and so far only full-fledged Masters course for consciousness studies.
The head of the Bhaktivedanta Institute, Svarupa Damodar Singh, was injured in a bomb attack in Manipur state in 2005 and died a few months later. Singh was posthumously honored by all of Manipur's political parties and major social institutions for his extraordinary efforts to achieve peace.
ISKCON in India
ISKCON is involved in various charitable projects in India, including giving prasadam free in prisons and schools, providing medical assistance to victims of natural disasters, and giving free clothing to children in need.
Because of the very specific religious doctrine ( Gaudiya Vaishnava ) that it preaches , the organization plays a mediating role in the “religious landscape” of the West as well as within the Hindu faiths in India. Due to its worldwide distribution, it has developed into an important contact point for Indians abroad of the Hindu faith.
ISKCON operates a Hare Krishna temple in Zurich . Further centers are located in German-speaking countries, for example in Munich, Hamburg, Basel and Vienna. ISKCON is also represented in many other European countries, in particular in Great Britain, Italy and Sweden.
After its founding, the movement grew rapidly through the influx of mostly young followers from the dropout and hippie trail scene of the 1960s and 1970s. It was soon criticized and in the 1980s sect commissioners regarded it as a so-called “ youth sect ” that isolated its followers in the “temples” from society by promoting breaking off contact with “unbelievers”. Furthermore, the followers are being brainwashed through permanent employment. In the opinion of the movement, however, after the death of the founder, a self-critical examination began in the mid-1980s, during which the story was dealt with. In the 1990s ISKCON dealt critically with the internal school system, the position of the spiritual masters on AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada and - due to the increasing shift of followers to communities outside the temple - with the attitude towards the public. Today ISKCON sees itself as an established Hindu community and tries to establish itself in interreligious dialogue. Nevertheless, there are still critical observers who accuse the organization, among other things, of using organized crime to improve its finances.
The German magazine stern reported on the aggressive begging of the organization on December 8, 1977: “Begging monks. They were to be found everywhere in Germany: shaven young men and women in sheet-like robes who were incessantly singing 'Hare Krishna' and begging passers-by for donations. A well-trained Hare Krishna monk, for example, on the beach on Sylt, earned a daily income of up to 1,000 marks, the sect earned up to a million a month (STERN No. 28/1974: The God who eats money and hair ). On December 15, 1974, the pseudo-religious ghost came to an end. Detective officers stormed the Ordensburg Castle Rettershof in the Taunus and secured a total of over 700,000 marks. 72 monks were led away (STERN No. 1/1975: Begging Monks with Ballermann ). From December 9th, 14 of them will be on trial in Frankfurt: According to investigations by the public prosecutor's office, they are said to have illegally collected 2.4 million marks through collections without official permission. "
Child abuse and abuse occurred in boarding schools of the movement in India and the United States from the 1970s to 1980s. Parents may not have noticed the abuse because at that time children were already living in boarding schools at the age of four and in some cases were rarely attended by their parents. The dissolution of the parent-child bond was intentional. In 1997, ISKCON set up a Child Protection Office in Alachua, Florida to deal with cases of abuse, to prevent abuse and to work with the authorities.
- Frank Neubert: Krishna consciousness. International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), 2010, ISBN 978-3-934759-04-6 .
- E. Burke Rochford: Hare Krishna Transformed. NYU Press, New York 2007, ISBN 978-0-8147-7578-3 .
- Edwin Bryant, Maria Ekstrand: The Hare Krishna Movement ; Columbia University Press, New York 2004; ISBN 0-231-12256-X .
- BB Tirtha Maharaj, Swami: Sri Chaitanya: His Life and Associates ; Mandala Publishing, San Raphael (CA) 2001; ISBN 1-886069-28-X .
- J. Gonda: Visnuism and Sivaism ; Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1996; ISBN 81-215-0287-X .
- Oude Bihari Lal Kapoor: The Philosophy and Religion of Sri Caitanya: The Philosophical Background of the Hare Krishna Movement ; South Asia Books, 1993; ISBN 978-81-215-0275-7 .
- Steven Rosen: India's Spiritual Renaissance: The Life and Times of Lord Chaitanya ; Brooklyn, NY: Folk Books, 1989; ISBN 978-0-9619763-0-9
- E. Burke Rochford Jr .: Hare Krishna in America ; New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986; ISBN 0-8135-1113-5 .
- Edmund Weber (Ed.): Krishna in the West ; Studia Irenica, 30; Frankfurt am Main, Bern, New York: Lang 1985; ISBN 3-8204-8903-7 .
- J. Stillson Judah: Hare Krishna and the Counter Culture ; New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1975; ISBN 978-0-471-45200-3 .
- Hans Conrad Zander: The god who eats money and hair. Stern 28/1974, pages 34ff.
- H. Milford: The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal ; Oxford University Press 1925
- Jadunath Sarkar: Chaitanya's Life and Teachings: From His Contemporary Bengali Biography the Chaitanya-Charit-Amrita (1922) ; Whitefish, Mont .: Kessinger Pub, 2007; ISBN 978-0-548-78531-7 .
- hare Krishna Belgium - Antwerp
- German website of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness
- ISKCON Krishna Temple in Zurich
- Glasnost in Guruland - The Hare Krishnas in motion Article by Dietmar Gottfried on Telepolis, January 8, 2012
- Hare Krishna books
- ↑ Kim Knott: Contemporary Theological Trends in the Hare Krishna Movement: A Theology of Religions ( Memento of the original of May 11, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; in: Diskus, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1993); Pp. 32-44; Note 9 as of July 10, 2011
- ↑ Bhaktivinode, Kedarnath Dutta: The Bhågavata, Its Philosophy, Its Ethics, and Its Theology ( Archived copy ( Memento of the original from March 8, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to instructions and then remove this note. ): Accidentally, we fell in with a work about the Great Caitanya ... The accidental study created in us a love for all the works which we find about our Eastern Savior.
- ^ "I'm Not the Flesh". Krishnacore and Straight Edge ; Article by Gabriel Kuhn , AAP, March 2012
- ↑ Gasper et al: Lexicon of sects, special groups and world views ; Freiburg i.Br .: Herder, 3rd edition 1991; P. 498
- ^ Graham Dwyer, Richard J. Cole: The Hare Krishna movement: forty years of chant and change. IB Tauris & Co Ltd, London 2007; ISBN 978-1-84511-407-7 ; P. 72
- ↑ A gamut of festivities in Durban ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Hindustan Times, January 13, 2007; last accessed on 10 July 2011
- ↑ Rath Yatra draws crowds in New York ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as broken. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Hindustan Times, June 11, 2007; last accessed on 10 July 2011
- ↑ The Four Regulative Principles The four main rules
- ↑ ISKCON correspondence course part 6 ( Memento of the original from August 12, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Rules of Devotional Service
- ↑ Shrimad Bhagavatam, Canto-10, Part-3: The rasa dance
- ^ Deprogrammer's "Trafficking for Bucks" ; The Denver Post August 12, 1977
- ↑ 200 Scholars Support Hare Krishna ; Los Angeles Times, November 6, 1976 issue
- ↑ Article in the British newspaper "The Times" from December 14, 2007 as of June 26, 2008
- ^ The Oxford Center for Hindu Studies: Board of Governors ( Memento January 27, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ CUHK Establishes First-of-its-Kind Professorship to Promote Indian Religions and Culture ; Press release of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) of October 11, 2007
- ↑ List of partner institutes of the Theological Faculty of the University of Wales, Lampeter ( Memento of the original dated June 9, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. As of June 9, 2008
- ↑ ISKCON Ministry of Educational Development ( Memento of the original from July 5, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Jamie Doward: £ 10m state cash for first Hindu school. Hare Krishna movement to offer guidance to 240 primary pupils in Harrow ; in: The Observer of December 24, 2006; last accessed on 10 July 2011.
- ↑ Yummy food attracts convicts to jail ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Agence France-Presse report in the Hindustan Times of June 21, 2007
- ↑ ISKCON sponsors doctors for tsunami relief ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Hindustan Times, January 3, 2007
- ↑ ISKCON launches “Akshaya Vastra” ( memento of the original from January 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; The Hindu, August 14, 2004 edition.
- ↑ Georg Schmid and Georg Otto Schmid (eds.) Churches, Sects, Religions, p. 327.
- ↑ http://ezw-berlin.de/downloads/Flyer_Kompakt-Information_ISKCON.pdf
- ^ Frank Neubert: Krishna Consciousness: The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) - Hare Krishna Movement REMID series, Marburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-934759-04-6
- ↑ Homepage of the Parents' Initiative for the Preservation of Intellectual Freedom eV Leverkusen ( Memento of the original from November 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Laurie Goodstein: Hare Krishna Movement Details Past Abuse at Its Boarding Schools . In: The New York Times . October 9, 1998, ISSN 0362-4331 ( nytimes.com [accessed April 11, 2017]).