Johann Christian Wilhelm Juncker

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Memorial plaque for Johann Christian Wilhelm Juncker in crypt arch 17 on the Stadtgottesacker Halle

Johann Christian Wilhelm Juncker (born June 30, 1761 in Halle (Saale) , † December 27, 1800 ) was a German medic . Juncker was from 1788 professor of medicine at the University of Halle . He made great contributions to research into smallpox and the introduction of the smallpox vaccination .



Juncker came from a family from which numerous doctors and doctors emerged. His grandfather Johann Juncker (1679–1759) was a doctor, as was his father Friedrich Christian Juncker (1730–1770). Both were professors and rectors at the University of Halle. Friedrich Christian Juncker married Johanna von Werther, the mother of Johann Christian Wilhelm, in 1759. Just a few days after his birth, his father registered him in the registration book of Halle University, a common practice at the time for members of the university.

Professional background

Juncker visited the Latina in the Francke Foundations in Halle, where his father and grandfather were already active as heads of the asylum clinic. From 1777 he began studying medicine at the University of Halle with Philipp Adolph Böhmer and Johann Christlieb Kemme , among others , but also attended lectures on physics and physiology with Johann Peter Eberhard and Wenceslaus Johann Gustav Karsten and natural history with Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen . In 1782 he moved to the University of Göttingen , where he finished his studies with Johann Friedrich Blumenbach , Georg Christoph Lichtenberg and Johann Georg Heinrich Feder . He found a deep personal relationship with the chemist Friedrich Stromeyer , and both later exchanged extensive letters .

In autumn 1783 Juncker received his doctorate at the Medical Faculty of the University of Halle with the dissertation De Caussis Aegritudinum Therapeuticis, eisque Superstruendo Aegritudinum Systemate to the doctor of medicine . He first went to Berlin for an anatomical course and later worked as a private lecturer and general practitioner in Halle. In 1787 he published his first major work, Principles of People's Medicine , which received positive reviews from experts and, from 1788, an attempt at a general medicine that appeared in two parts until 1791.

In July 1788 he received an extraordinary professorship in medicine at Halle University, and in 1791 he was appointed full professor of medicine with a salary of 100 thalers . He himself now gave lectures on therapy, pathology and folk medicine. Due to the positive response to his writings, he received a call to Russia in 1790 , which he refused. Juncker was strongly committed to the smallpox vaccination that was developed at that time. He published several writings on the subject, including from 1792 to 1794 the charitable proposals and messages about the best behavior of people in consideration of the smallpox disease .

In the autumn of 1798 he fell seriously ill with a stomach ailment. On the way back from Magdeburg to Halle, Johann Christian Wilhelm Juncker died unexpectedly on December 27, 1800 at the age of 39. There was only one other passenger in his carriage, but he did not notice Juncker's death because he assumed that Juncker was asleep. Thus, the exact place of death could not be determined. An autopsy by the anatomist Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel in Halle revealed a stroke as the cause of death . Juncker was buried in Halle's Stadtgottesacker . His grave is in crypt arch 17, where his grandfather and father were also buried. In his honor, a memorial plaque was inaugurated on the Stadtgottesacker in June 2018. Juncker was a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin and the Helvetic Society of Corresponding Doctors and Surgeons in Zurich .

Marriage and offspring

Johann Christian Wilhelm Juncker married Anne Esther Marguarithe (1768–1829) on February 9, 1794, the daughter of a French Huguenot family who had settled in Halle. The father François Plantier (1729–1788) ran a pawn shop in Halle. Their daughter Charlotte Juncker (1795-1866) seeded the father in August 1800, during a devastating smallpox epidemic, the cowpox it self. He described the treatment and the course of the disease in an essay. A re-vaccination in the following year prevented his early death. Charlotte was the first child to receive a protective smallpox vaccination in Halle. In 1816 she married the Romanist Ludwig Gottfried Blanc . Anne Esther Marguarithe, his wife, married Karl Pollau, the Lombard director in Halle, in June 1803.

Publications (selection)

  • De Caussis Aegritudinum Therapeuticis, eisque Superstruendo Aegritudinum Systemate. ( Dissertation ), Halle 1783.
  • Attempt at a general medicine for the use of academic lectures: In addition to preliminary remarks, partly on some means of perfecting the art of medicine and of making use of existing medical knowledge in the real world; partly about the type of establishment of therapeutic instructions. Hall 1788 (digitized)
  • Principles of folk medicine. Designed to make the oral presentation more convenient for the audience. Hall 1787 (digitized version)
  • Conspectus rerum quae in Pathologia medicinali pertractantur. Sumptibus Orphanotrophei, Halle / Magdeburg 1789 (digitized) 1790 (digitized)
  • Something about the vineyard disease of the late Doctor Bahrdt and similar still living patients. Informed the non-doctors as a friendly warning. Hemmerde and Schwetschke, Halle 1792 (digitized)
  • Non-profit suggestions and news about human best behavior with respect to smallpox. Hall 1792–1796.
    • Non-profit suggestions and news about human best behavior with respect to smallpox. First attempt for the middle classes along with an appendix for doctors . Hall 1792 (digitized)
    • Nonprofit suggestions and news about smallpox. For Germany's doctors. A suggestion from folk archeology . Hemmerde and Schwetschke, Hall 1795 (digitized version)
  • Archive of doctors and pastors against smallpox. Weygandsche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1797, 2nd item (digitized version) , 3rd item (digitized version)


Web links