Illustration of the Red Ratanhia ( Krameria lappacea )
|Scientific name of the family|
|Scientific name of the genus|
Krameria , sometimes called Ratanhia, is the only genus of plants of theRatanhia family ( Krameriaceae ) within the order of the zygophyllales . The approximately 18 species occur only in the Neotropic .
Appearance and leaves
Krameria species grow as shrubs or perennial herbaceous plants . They are parasitic plants, more precisely: semi-parasites also called hemiparasitic plants ; there is a wide range of possible host plant species. The roots of the seedlings have no root hairs and the roots must be connected to the host plant for the first two months . Secondary growth in thickness is based on a conventional cambium ring .
Inflorescences and flowers
The five-fold, hermaphrodite, zygomorphic flowers have a double flower envelope and look somewhat similar to pea flowers . Of the usually five (rarely four) sepals of different sizes , the outer three are usually larger than the inner; they are the conspicuous part of the flower, pink, purple or yellow and petal-like. Of the reduced usually five (rarely four) differently shaped petals , the three upper ones are nailed. The two lower ones are usually smaller, broad and thick; here the secretion of oil takes place to attract the pollinators. There are usually four, rarely three or five unequal stamens , they can be free or fused together. Staminodes may be present. Only one of the two carpels develops and forms the upper, single-chamber ovary . Each ovary contains only two pendulous, collateral, anatropic, bitegmic ovules .
Fruits and seeds
The areas of about 18 species are only in the Neotropic . Their homeland ranges from the southwestern United States to Chile and the Caribbean islands. Ten species occur from Kansas across the southwestern United States (with disjoint populations of a species in Florida and adjacent areas in Georgia ) to Costa Rica . Six species occur from northern Colombia to east-central Brazil , with one species ( Krameria ixine ) reaching Sinaloa, Mexico and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Two types occur in western-central South America in Peru , Bolivia , northern Chile and Argentina .
They thrive in warm arid and semi-arid areas.
The genus Krameria was established by Carl von Linné in 1758 . He was the editor of the botanical travelogue Iter hispanicum , Stockholm, written by Pehr Loefling : Lars Salvii Kostnad. On page 195, Linné gave the new genus, which Loefling had called Ixine in his manuscript , the name Krameria . Type species is the Krameria ixine L. published in Linnés Systema naturae , Editio Decima 1759, Vol. 2, p. 899. The Krameriaceae family was established in 1829 by Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier in Analyze des Familles de Plantes , 20, 23. First the genus Krameria was placed in the Polygalaceae family, then led by Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier in 1829 as a separate family and Paul Hermann Wilhelm Taubert classified in the Leguminosae in 1892. In 1989 Beryl B. Simpson reactivated the Krameriaceae family in Flora Neotropica , Monograph 49, pp. 1-109. The Krameriaceae and Zygophyllaceae s. st. are sister families. The generic name Krameria honors the Austrian military doctor Johann Georg Heinrich Kramer (1684–1744), who also worked as a botanist.
There are around 18 species of Krameria :
- Krameria argentea Mart. ex explos. : It occurs in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Federal District and Goias.
- Krameria bahiana B.B.Simpson : It is endemic to the Brazilian state of Bahia.
- Krameria cistoidea Hook. & Arn. : It occurs in Chile, for example.
- Krameria cytisoides Cav.
- Krameria erecta Willd. ex Schult. et Schult. f. (Syn .: Krameria glandulosa Rose & JHPainter ): It comes in the US states of southern New Mexico, southwest Texas, Arizona, southern California and southern Nevada and in the Mexican states of Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, San Luis Potosi, Sonora and Zacatecas.
- Krameria grandiflora A.St.-Hil.
- Krameria grayi Rose et Painter (Syn .: Krameria bicolor S.Watson , Krameria sonorae Britton ): It occurs in the US states of Texas, Arizona, California, Nevada and in the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Zacatecas.
- Krameria ixine L .: It occurs in Antigua and Barbuda , Grenada , Haiti , Curacao , Puerto Rico , in Costa Rica , Guatemala , Honduras , Guyana , Venezuela and Colombia .
- Krameria lanceolata Torr. : It occurs in the US states of Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Texas and Arizona and in the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua and Coahuila.
- Red Ratanhia ( Krameria lappacea (Domb.) Burd. Et Simp. , Syn .: Krameria triandra Ruiz et Pav. , Krameria iluca Phil. ): It is widespread especially in the Andes in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina and Chile.
- Krameria pauciflora DC.
- Krameria paucifolia (Rose) Rose
- Krameria ramosissima (A.Gray) S.Wats.
- Krameria revoluta O. Berg
- Krameria secundiflora DC.
- Krameria spartioides Klotzsch ex O.Berg
- Krameria tomentosa A. St.-Hil.
- The family of Krameriaceae in APWebsite. (Section description and systematics)
- The Krameriaceae family at DELTA by L. Watson & MJ Dallwitz. (Section description)
- Beryl B. Simpson, Andrea Weeks, D. Megan Helfgott & Leah L. Larkin: Species relationships in Krameria (Krameriaceae) based on ITS sequences and morphology: implications for character utility and biogeography , In: Systematic Botany , 29, 2004, p. 97-108. doi : 10.1600 / 036364404772974013 (section description, distribution and systematics)
- Krameriaceae at Jepson eFlora.
- Krameria in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Krameria at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- Max Wichtl: Tea drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. 4th edition. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8047-1854-X
- Distribution area.
- Jon LR Every & Amélia Baracat Every, 2009: Neotropical Krameriaceae . In: W. Milliken, B. Klitgård & A. Baracat: Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics , 2009 onwards.
- Comparison of Krameria Species .
- Mark A. Dimmitt: Krameraceae (krameria family) from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum.
- Sia Morhardt & J. Emil Morhardt: California Desert Flowers: An Introduction to Families, Genera, and Species , University of California Press, 2004. ISBN 9780520240032 Google-Book-online. therein Krameriaceae pp. 165-168