|__ Li + __ Cl -|
Fm 3 m (No. 225)
Li , Cl 
|External identifiers / databases|
|Molar mass||42.39 g mol −1|
2.07 g cm −3
614 ° C (anhydrous)
1360 ° C
|As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions . Refractive index: Na-D line , 20 ° C|
Lithium chloride LiCl, the lithium salt of hydrochloric acid , forms colorless, highly hygroscopic crystals . In addition to the anhydrous lithium chloride, there are also various hydrates , known are LiCl · n H 2 O with n = 1, 3 and 5.
Lithium chloride solutions are very hygroscopic . Anhydrous lithium chloride crystallizes out of concentrated aqueous solutions only at temperatures above 98 ° C. At lower temperatures one of the hydrate forms is obtained. The solubility in water is approx. 450 g LiCl / kg solution. Gaseous lithium chloride forms planar rings from several lithium chloride molecules (di-, tri- and oligomers).
Lithium chloride solutions are very corrosive. Suitable materials must be selected for handling concentrated solutions. Lithium chloride solutions also damage concrete .
The standard enthalpy of formation of the crystalline lithium chloride is Δ f H 0 298 = −408.27 kJ / mol.
Technically relevant at the moment is only the conversion of lithium carbonate with hydrochloric acid with subsequent concentration with crystallization of lithium chloride in vacuum evaporators.
In addition, lithium chloride is often a by-product of organometallic syntheses (salt metathesis).
Since the synthesis from aqueous media always gives a compound containing water of crystallization under room conditions, the anhydrous salt is prepared by reacting the hydrate with thionyl chloride :
Lithium chloride can be used to make lithium . For this purpose, a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride is used in a melt-flow electrolysis . Because of its strong hygroscopic effect, it can be used as a drying agent and also for dehumidifying rooms. It can also be used as a flux in soldering and welding technology. Due to its hygroscopicity, it can be used in dew point sensors or hygrometers. The electrical conductivity of the salt is strongly dependent on the water concentration, which is why the ambient humidity can be determined from the conductivity of the lithium chloride. Lithium chloride can be used as a tracer in chemical or geological investigations . Lithium chloride can be used in deicer solutions. However, since these are corrosive , they are banned for use on aircraft in the USA , for example . The textile industry also uses lithium chloride. Lithium chloride solutions with 25–30% LiCl can be used in cold baths. Such cold baths can remain liquid down to −70 ° C.
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