|__ Li + __ O 2− __ H +|
P 4 / mmm (No. 123)
a = 3.549 Å , c = 4.334 Å
|External identifiers / databases|
|Molar mass||23.95 g mol −1|
1.46 g cm −3
450 ° C
924 ° C
sparingly soluble in water
|ΔH f 0||
−484 kJ mol −1
|As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .|
Pure lithium oxide Li 2 O reacts with water to form lithium hydroxide.
Pure lithium hydroxide can be produced by reacting lithium sulfate with barium hydroxide octahydrate. The resulting monohydrate can be converted to anhydrate with P 4 O 10 in a vacuum.
Alternatively, lithium hydroxide can also be produced by electrolysis of aqueous lithium salt solutions.
Lithium hydroxide is a white, translucent solid with a crystal structure of the PbO type ( space group P 4 / mmm (space group no. 123) , a = 3.549, c = 4.334 Å). It is a strong base and as such it reacts with acids . Lithium hydroxide is also able to bind carbon dioxide (1 g of anhydrous lithium hydroxide binds 450 ml of CO 2 ).
Most of the lithium hydroxide is required for the production of lithium stearates , which are important lubricating greases for cars and aircraft. It is also used as an air purifier due to its carbon dioxide binding effect. This is particularly important in space travel , on submarines and in pendulum breathing diving equipment ( rebreather ) . Lithium hydroxide can be added to cement and is able to suppress the alkali-silica reaction . Lithium hydroxide is also a possible additive in nickel-iron batteries .
Further areas of application are photo developers, ceramic products and the production of borates .
- International Chemical Safety Card (ICSC) for lithium hydroxide from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Entry on LITHIUM HYDROXIDE in the CosIng database of the EU Commission, accessed on March 6, 2020.
- AF Holleman , N. Wiberg : Inorganische Chemie . 103rd edition. Volume 1: Basics and main group elements. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2016, ISBN 978-3-11-049585-0 , p. 1513 (reading sample: Part A - Basics of the chemistry of hydrogen. Google book search ).
- U. Wietelmann, R. Bauer: lithium and lithium compounds . In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry , 2000, doi : 10.1002 / 14356007.a15_393
- Georg Brauer (Ed.), With the collaboration of Marianne Baudler u a .: Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry. 3rd, revised edition. Volume II, Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-432-87813-3 , p. 958.
- Entry on lithium hydroxide. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on January 2, 2015.
- H.-G. Heitmann: Chemical concerns in nuclear power plants . In: Chemie Ingenieur Technik - CIT , 1976, 48, 2, pp. 124-129, doi : 10.1002 / cite.330480210 .