Tulip tree ( Liriodendron tulipifera ), blossom and lobed leaves.
Magnolias are woody plants: trees or bushes . They are evergreen or deciduous. The alternate and spirally arranged leaves are stalked, large and simple. The leaf blade is simple or lobed. They have large stipules .
The flowers are usually individually terminal or axillary. The stalked flowers are hermaphroditic (rarely unisexual) and often large and magnificent. Unlike most flowering plant whose flower parts are arranged whorled, so the Blütenhüll- that are in the magnolia plants all petals (s. L.), Dust and carpels spirally on the axis core , arranged acyclic and usually in plurality (more than six) . The mostly many free and upper carpels usually contain two, rarely up to 20 ovules . Follicles or legumes are formed as fruits, which are spiraling in cone-shaped seed heads. Since this arrangement is also found in early fossil coversamers, the plants of this family are considered to be evolutionarily old (or primitive). The pollination is usually by beetles.
Flower formula : or .
This family of plants is common in America and East Asia. The majority of the species grows in the temperate and tropical zones of Southeast Asia , from the Himalayas east to Japan and south-east across the Malay archipelago to New Guinea and New Britain . The remaining species are distributed in the temperate south-eastern parts of North America via tropical South America to Brazil .
The classification of the Magnoliaceae family is controversial (see AGP website and literature below). It was suggested that there are two subfamilies. The subfamily Liriodendroidae with the only genus Liriodendron and the subfamily Magnolioideae. According to some authors, the subfamily Magnolioideae contains the only extensive genus Magnolia or, according to Chinese authors in particular (see Flora of China 2008), up to 16 small genera.
The Liriodendraceae used to be an independent family, the two species of which are now assigned to the magnolia family.
In the Magnoliaceae family there are only two genera (illustration based on, for example, Hans P. Nooteboom) with around 297 species:
- Magnolias ( Magnolia L.): With about 295 species.
- Tulip trees ( Liriodendron L.): It contains only two species.
- The Magnoliaceae family on the AGP website. (Section description)
- The Magnoliaceae family at DELTA. (Section description)
- Frederick G. Meyer: Magnoliaceae. - Same text online as the printed work , In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Hrsg.): Flora of North America North of Mexico , Volume 3 - Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae , Oxford University Press, New York a. a., 1997. ISBN 0-19-511246-6 . (Section description and systematics)
- Yuhu Liu, Nianhe Xia, Liu Yuhu & Hans P. Nooteboom: Magnoliaceae , p. 48 - online with the same text as the printed text, In: Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan (eds.): Flora of China. , Volume 7, Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis 2008. ISBN 978-1-930723-81-8 (section description and classification)
- The Magnoliaceae family in the Flora of Pakistan . (Section description)
- Magnoliaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
- Subir Ranjan Kundu: A synopsis on distribution and endemism of Magnoliaceae sl in Indian Subcontinent , In: Thaiszia - Journal of Botany , Košice, 19, 2009, pp. 47-60. PDF . :
- Nian-He Xia, Qing-Wen Zeng, Feng-Xia Xu & Qi-Gen Wu (editors): Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on the Family Magnoliaceae. - 5–8 May 2009, Guangzhou, China: table of contents and pp. 199–209 of 300 pages - PDF.
- Ze-Long Nie, Jun Wena, Hiroshi Azuma, Yin-Long Qiu, Hang Sun, Ying Meng, Wei-Bang Sun & Elizabeth A. Zimmer: Phylogenetic and biogeographic complexity of Magnoliaceae in the Northern Hemisphere inferred from three nuclear data sets , In : Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution , Volume 48, 2008, pp. 1027-1040: PDF .
- Hans Peter Nooteboom & Piya Chalermglin: The Magnoliaceae of Thailand , In: Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) , No. 37, 2009, pp. 111-138: PDF .
- Daniele Cicuzza, Adrian Newton and Sara Oldfield: The Red List of Magnoliaceae , Published by Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK., 2007. ISBN 9781-903703-23-6 : PDF .
- Classification of Magnoliaceae. Magnolia Society International, 2012, accessed December 22, 2015 . , see. RB Figlar, Hans P. Nooteboom:Notes on Magnoliaceae IV.In:Blumea. Leiden 49, 2004, 1, 87.