|Marshall Amplification plc
|legal form||Corporation (United Kingdom)|
|Seat||Bletchley , UK|
|management||Andrew Robert Charles|
|Number of employees||250|
|sales||£ 50m (2017)|
|Branch||Amplifier (electrical engineering)|
|As of June 4, 2018|
Marshall Amplification plc is an English company that designs and manufactures music amplifiers, loudspeakers, effects units and headphones. It was founded in 1962 in London by drum shop owner and drummer Jim Marshall and is based in Bletchley .
The founder of the company was Jim Marshall, who opened his first drum shop in Hanwell, London in 1960 and also built loudspeakers for musical instruments in his garage. Since he was also teaching, many of the drummers brought their guitarists and bassists with them, and so Jim soon expanded his range to include bass and guitar amps . After talks with his customers who were looking for a different, not so “clean” tone ( Townshend , Brian Poole and Jim Sullivan), his employee Ken Bran built the first Marshall tube amplifiers from 1962 onwards . As a basis, they chose the electrical circuit of the (5F6A) Fender -Bassman, which brought with it sonic properties that came closest to their ideas.
This resulted in the Marshall Plexi (JTM45) in the same year . In 1964 the legendary "Bluesbreaker" combo amplifier (type 1962) followed, which for the first time helped the typical Marshall sound to break through. It was this amplifier that was used by Eric Clapton on the 1966 John Mayall album " Bluesbreakers " , which later became legendary in the blues scene . In the search for more volume and power, the first 100 watt top with the designation "JTM 45/100" was developed at the suggestion of some musicians. Further 100 watt versions of the JTM 100 MK V and JMP amplifiers followed in 1959 and established these as the standard for amplifier power that is still accepted today.
In collaboration with Pete Townshend , the guitarist of the band The Who , the famous "Marshall Stack" was also developed. Initially, 8 × 12 " boxes were made for Townshend . However, these were far too unwieldy for its roadies . Jim Marshall then suggested that the loudspeakers be accommodated in two stackable housings. Such a Marshall or full stack has been out since then two 4 × 12 "speaker boxes and an amplifier top. A single 4 × 12 "box with an amplifier top is called a" half stack ".
In 1976, Marshall introduced the "MK II Master-Series", whose most popular model - the "2203" top part - was built almost unchanged in the "JCM-800" series, which appeared from 1980.
The history of Marshall is supported by numerous guitarists such as Stevie Salas , Eddie van Halen , Randy Rhoads , Jimi Hendrix , Eric Clapton , Angus Young ( AC / DC ), Jeff Beck , Gary Moore , Pete Townshend , Lemmy Kilmister ( Motörhead ) , Slash ( Guns N 'Roses , Velvet Revolver ), Joe Satriani , Yngwie Malmsteen , Kerry King ( Slayer ), Zakk Wylde ( Black Label Society ), Bryan Adams , Dave Murray , Adrian Smith , Janick Gers (all 3 Iron Maiden ), John Frusciante ( Red Hot Chili Peppers ) and many others.
The classic devices from the 1960s had a green or blue-black cover with gold-colored decorative strips and a gold company logo. The boxes, such as the "1960TV", were covered with a gray fabric. Since the mid-1970s, with the exception of a few custom-made products, all Marshall models have had a black and white design with brass control panels and a white company logo.
In 1998 the "JCM-2000" series came on the market, consisting of various tube amplifiers which, in addition to the typical "Marshall Brown Sound", also offer Fender-typical clean sounds and modern Nu-Metal sounds. The youngest member of the Marshall family is the new "JVM" (Jim and Victoria Marshall), which offers many modern features such as MIDI and 4 channels.
For the 25th company anniversary in 1987, the Silver Jubilee series was released with the 25/50 and 25/53 tops and the 25/54 combo.
Set amplifier models (selection)
The first Marshall amplifiers were named JTM45 - JTM stands for “Jim and Terry Marshall” (Terry was Marshall's son). These amplifiers have two channels (normal and high treble) with two inputs each, which can be connected by a bridge. The 4-band tone control (bass, middle, treble, presence) affects both channels. With these early models there were still many changes in the current series, partly due to the availability of suitable components.
Marshall's first guitar amp was essentially a copy of the 1959 Fender Bassman with KT66 tubes
- JTM45 Head : top part, referred to as 1987 from 1965
- JTM45 Lead (1961): 4x10 "combo
- JTM45 Bass & Lead (1962): 2x12 ”Combo (Blues Breaker)
- JTM45 Tremolo Lead (1987T): 45 W top part with tremolo in tube construction
The 100 W version of the JTM45 with initially four KT66, later four EL34 tubes was added to the range at the request of customers for more power. Based on an idea by Pete Townsend, there were also versions with tremolo, but these were only produced in small numbers.
- JTM100 Super Lead (1959): 100 W head
- JTM100 Tremolo Super Lead (1959T): 100 W top part with tremolo
- JTM100 Super PA (1968): 100 W top, PA version from 1959 with 4 channels and 8 inputs
- JTM100 Super Bass (1992): 100 W head, bass version of the 1959
- JTM100 Tremolo Super Bass (1992T): 100 W head, bass version of the 1959T
With the first major revision, the change to EL34 tubes took place. Rectifier with diodes instead of GZ34 tubes
- JTM50 Lead (1987): 50 W head
- JTM50 Tremolo Lead (1987T): 50 W head with tremolo
- JTM50 Lead (1961): 50 W 4x10 "combo with tremolo
- JTM50 Bass & Lead (1962): 50 W 2x12 "combo (Blues Breaker) with tremolo
- There were also PA versions of the JTM50.
With the next revision of the amplifier, the name was changed to JMP (Jim Marshall Products). The chassis was no longer made by hand from aluminum, but mechanically from steel, which made the amplifiers more robust. In 1969 the front was changed from Plexiglas to the golden, brushed aluminum that is still used today.
- JMP100 Super Lead (1959): 100 W head, also with tremolo (1959T) and as a 2x12 ”combo (2159)
- JMP50 Super Lead (1987): 50 W head, also with tremolo (1987T) and as a 2x12 ”combo (2187)
- JMP50 Lead (1961): 50 W 4x10 "combo with tremolo
- JMP50 Bass & Lead (1962): 50 W 2x12 "combo (Blues Breaker) with tremolo
- In addition, there were PA and organ versions of the JMP50.
In 1975 the Master Volume Lead models were introduced:
- 2203/2103 : 100 W top / 2x12 ”combo
- 2204/2104 : 50 W top / 2x12 ”combo
- There were also other models
JCM 800 (1981-1989)
The series began with the well-known JMP MKII models, which were renamed JCM 800, but retained their structure and model number.
- 1959/1987 : 100/50 W top without master volume, 4 inputs
- 2203/2204 : 100/50 W top with master volume
- 4010 : 50 W 1 × 12 ″ combo
- 4104 : 50 W 2 × 12 ″ combo
- 4103 : 100 W 2 × 12 ″ combo
A year later, in 1982, Marshall made a big leap into the modern age. With the 4210, there were two channels with their own tone control that can be switched by foot switch for the first time: normal channel with volume, bass, treble and boost channel with gain, volume and 3-band tone control (bass, middle, treble). Also new were clipping - diode in boost channel, which, however, also ensured harsh distortion in the way of distortion pedals for added. There was also a serial FX loop, a built-in spring reverb and a master volume. The amplifiers were built with printed circuit boards (PCB), four ECC83 and two EL34 tubes were used.
- 4210 : 50 W 1x12 ”combo
In 1983 the two-channel amplifiers continued, now also as a top and with 100 W. Now a presence control was added to the master section.
- 2205/4212 : 50 W top / 2x12 ”combo,
- 2210/4211 : 100 W top / 2x12 ”combo
JCM 900 (1990-1999)
The High Gain Master Volume MKIII models have only one channel with 4-band tone control (bass, middle, treble, presence) and clipping diodes, but two master volumes that can be switched by foot switch.
- 2100/2101 : 100 W top / 1x12 ”combo
- 2500/2501/2502 : 50 W top / 1x12 ”combo / 2x12” combo
With the High Gain Dual Reverb models, the foot switch switches between two channels, each of which has its own reverb control. But they share a 4-band tone control.
- 4100/4101/4102 , 100 W Topteil / 1x12 "Combo (Celestion G12H-100) / 2x12" "Combo (Celestion G12T-75),
- 4500/4501/4502 : 50 W top / 1x12 "combo (Celestion G12T-75) / 2x12" combo (Celestion G12T-75)
In 1993 the High Gain Master Volume was revised to the SL-X (Super Lead Extended).
- 2100/2101 SL-X : 100 W top part / 1x12 "
- 2500/2501/2502 SL-X : 50 W top / 1x12 ”combo / 2x12” combo
The Valvestate were a series of inexpensive hybrid amplifiers as a combo from 10 to 100 W or as a 100 W top. Most of them are built with transistor technology, but have a single ECC83 tube in the preamp. The name Valvestate is a compound from Valve, the English term for an amplifier tube and the State of Solid State (semiconductor).
The first models (8000 series) were later referred to as MK I. In 1996 they were replaced by the MK II versions (VS model numbers).
JTM 30, JTM 60 (1994-1997)
With the JTM 30, Marshall brought out smaller combo amplifiers below the usual 50 W. Three ECC83 and initially two 6L6 tubes (in the output stage) were used. The amplifiers have two channels (normal and boost) that can be switched by foot switch, a 3-band tone control, FX loop, reverb and master volume.
- JTM310 / JTM312 : 30 W 1x10 ”combo / 1x12” combo
1995 appeared with the JTM 60 the big brother of the JTM 30, now again with two EL34 tubes typical for Marshall. Now each channel got its own 3-band tone control and the reverb could also be set separately.
- JTM600 / JTM610 / JTM612 / JTM622 / JTM615 : 60 W top / 3x10 ”combo / 1x12” combo / 2x12 ”combo / 1x15” combo
JCM 600 (1997-1999)
The JCM 600 was intended to be the successor to the JTM 60. It has the same structure, but has been optically modernized. However, versions with 10 ”or 15” have now been dispensed with.
- JCM600 / JCM601 / JCM602 : 60 W top / 1x12 "combo / 2x12" combo
JCM 2000 (1997-2008)
The JCM 2000 series started with the DSL (Dual Super Lead) models. These amps have two channels and reverb. The two Combox have their own 3-band tone control and shared reverb, FX mix and master for each channel.
- DSL201 : 20 W 1x12 ”combo, two EL84
- DSL401 : 40 W 1x12 ”combo, four EL84
The tops have two modes per channel, Classic Gain (Clean and Crunch) and Ultra Gain (Lead 1 and Lead 2), a shared 4-band tone control with additional tone shift and deep switch. The reverb can be set separately by channel with two controls.
- DSL50 : 50 W top, two EL34
- DSL100 : 100 W top, four EL34
In 2000 the series was expanded to the TSL (Triple Super Lead) with three channels. In the 60 W models, Crunch and Lead share a common 3-band tone control and reverb, while Clean has its own controls. Common to all channels is Presence, FX Mix and Master Volume. In the 100 W models, all three channels have their own tone control.
- TSL60 / TSL601 / TSL602 : 60 W top / 1x12 ”combo / 2x12” combo, two EL34
- TSL100 / TSL122 : 100 W top / 2x12 ”combo, four EL34
Mode Four (2003-2008)
These amplifiers with a metal mesh look were aimed at the then current trend of Nu Metal . They are hybrid amplifiers with tubes in the preamp and a transistor output stage. They have a tone with few mids that is atypical for Marshall.
- MF350 : 350 W head
Vintage Modern (2007-2013)
As the name suggests, the Vintage Modern amplifiers should combine the classic Marshall tone with modern possibilities. It was the first Marshall amplifier since the late 1960s to be equipped with KT66 tubes. The gain is set separately with two controls, Body and Detail, and makes it possible to emphasize rather low or high frequencies. The Dynamic Range switch can be used to switch between little or a lot of distortion, even with a foot switch. In addition to the 4-band tone control and a master volume, there is also a built-in reverb that can be switched using a foot switch.
- 2466 : 100 W head
- 2266 / 2266C : 50 W top / 2x12 ”combo (Celestion G12C)
The MA series were cheaper tube amplifiers with two channels with 3-band EQ each. The overdrive crunch can be used as a third channel. There is also presence, master volume and a spring reverb. Three ECC83 and two / four EL34 tubes were used. The amplifiers were made in Vietnam.
- MA50H / MA50C : 50 W top / 1x12 ”combo
- MA100H / MA100C : 100 W head / 2x12 ”combo
The HAZE series is a combination of traditional tube technology in the preamp and output stage with modern digital technology for built-in effects. These amplifiers each have two channels with a common 3-band tone control, a bright switch, as well as digital effects that can be switched off: digital reverb and a switchable effect from the selection echo / vibrato / chorus, which is saved individually for each channel.
- MHZ15 : 15 W top part
- MHZ40C : 40 W 1x12 ”combo, three ECC83, two EL34, additionally both channels with a boost, presence control, FX loop, emulated line out
JMD: 1 (2010-2012)
The JMD: 1 series were Marshall's first digital modeling amplifiers. It was developed together with Softube and offers 16 digital models of well-known Marshall amplifiers. The output stage is built in tube technology with two / four EL34s. Four memory locations / channels can be set directly on the amplifier, 28 with a foot switch and 128 with MIDI. The amplifiers also have an FX loop, emulated line out, built-in reverb, delay and an effects section with noise gate / chorus / phaser / Flanger / tremolo. The amplifiers were made in China.
- JMD50 / JMD501 : 50 W top / 1x12 ”combo
- JMD100 / JMD102 : 100 W top / 2x12 ”combo (1x Celestion 12AX75, 1x Celestion G12MD70)
Current guitar amps
MG (since 1999)
The MG series consists of inexpensive amplifiers in transistor design, some with digital effects section. There are different models from the 10 W 1x6.5 ”combo to the 100 W top.
JVM (since 2007)
With the JVM series, Marshall offers classic tube technology paired with modern switching options for maximum flexibility. Depending on the model, there are two or four separately controllable channels each with gain, volume and 3-band tone control and three modes each. There are also two masters, resonance, presence and separate reverb for each channel, as well as effects loop, MIDI and recording out. The sound settings of the switches are programmable and can be called up via foot switch or MIDI. The JVM series is made in England.
- JVM410H / JVM410C : 100 W top / 2x12 "combo, four channels, RRP € 1479 / € 1699
- JVM210H / JVM210C : 100 W top part / 2x12 "combo, two channels, RRP € 1359 / € 1659
- JVM205H / JVM205C / JVM215C : 50 W top / 2x12 "combo / 1x12" combo (Celestion G12 B), two channels, RRP 1259, - € / 1459, - € / 1360, - €
- JVM410HJS : 100 W top, four channels, Joe Satriani Signature with Noise Gate instead of Reverb and other voicing of the four channels, OD1 and OD2 are identical, RRP 2070, - €
DSL (since 2012)
The current DSL series replaced the only briefly built MA series and is very successful. It offers a further spectrum from small practice amplifiers to 100 W tops. All amplifiers in this series are built using tube technology (preamp and output stage) and, according to Marshall, are based on the JCM2000 DSL100. You have two channels with a common 3-band tone control and a tone shift. The DSL manufactured in Vietnam are therefore a cheaper alternative to the even more flexible JVM models.
- DSL5C : 5 W 1x10 ”Combo (Celestion Ten 30)
- DSL15H / DSL15C : 15 W top / 1x12 ”combo (Celestion G12E-60 Custom), additional presence control
- DSL40C : 50 W 1x12 ”combo (Celestion Seventy 80), two EL34, two modes per channel, presence, resonance and digital reverb with separate controls for both channels
- DSL100H : 100 W top, like DSL40C but four EL34 tubes
For 2018, the series has been significantly revised and expanded to include 1 W models. The smaller models are now also equipped with a digital reverb and the 40 W and 100 W have separate reverb controls for the two channels and two masters.
- DSL1HR / DSL1CR : 1 W top / 1x8 ”combo (Celestion Eight 15), clean channel only with one volume control, RRP € 289 / € 339
- DSL5CR : 5 W 1x10 ”combo (Celestion Ten 30), both channels with gain and volume, RRP € 489
- DSL20HR / DSL20CR : 20 W top / 1x12 ”combo (Celestion Seventy 80), additional presence and resonance controls, RRP € 539 / € 639
- DSL40CR : 40 W 1x12 ”combo (Celestion V-Type), two modes per channel, separate reverb controls, two masters, RRP € 829
- DSL100HR : 100 W top, like DSL40CR but four EL34 tubes, RRP € 949
Vintage Reissues (since 2015)
With the new editions (reissues) of popular models, Marshall would like to provide access to classic sounds.
- 2555X Silver Jubilee : 100 W top part (with switch for 50 W) with four EL34 tubes
- 1987X Plexi : 50 W top part with two EL34 tubes
- JTM45 2245 : 30 W top with two 5881 tubes
- JCM800 2203 : 100 W top part with four EL34 tubes
- JCM900 4100 : 100 W top with four 5881 tubes
- 1962 Bluesbreaker : 30 W combo with 2x12 "Celestion G12M-25 speakers and two 5881 tubes
Astoria (since 2015)
The amplifiers of the Astoria series combine classic, vintage tube sound with modern switching options and use ECC83, GZ34 & KT66 tubes. They are hand-wired on a turretboard in the manner of boutique amps from smaller manufacturers in England and are accordingly expensive.
- Astoria Classic (AST1H / AST1C): 30 W top / 1x12 ”combo (Celestion G12H-75, 12" Custom Creamback), one channel, two inputs, green, RRP 2149, - €
- Astoria Custom (AST2H / AST2C): 30 W top / 1x12 ”combo (Celestion G12H-75, 12" Custom Creamback), one channel, gain boost via foot switch, red, RRP 2299, - €
- Astoria Dual (AST3H / AST3C): 30 W top / 1x12 ”combo (Celestion G12H-75, 12" Custom Creamback), two channels, FX loop, blue, RRP 3272, - €
CODE (since 2016)
The Marshall CODE series are digital modeling amplifiers, which were again developed together with Softube. They connect to the JMD: 1 series, but unlike this series, they have a transistor output stage. On board are models for 14 preamplifiers, 4 power amplifiers and 8 boxes and 24 effects, as well as Bluetooth for streaming audio and the option of setting the amplifier completely via iOS or Android app. In addition to the usual controls and a number of buttons, there is a small, single-colored orange display on the device itself.
- Code 25 : 25 W, 1x10 ”combo, RRP € 273
- Code 50 : 50 W, 1x12 ”combo, RRP 299, - €
- Code 100 Head / Combo : 100 W top / 2 × 12 ”Combo, RRP € 349 / € 449
Origin (since 2018)
The Origin series is designed to revive the sound of the early Marshall models (JTM-45, 1959SLP). You only have one channel with rather little gain and the typical 3-band tone control. There is also a boost function and, from 20 W, there is also presence and master. The specialty of this series is the tilt control with which you can fade continuously between a normal and a high-treble voicing - the early amplifier models had different inputs for this. The amplifiers are manufactured in Vietnam, according to Marshall with final inspection in England.
- Origin 5 Combo : 5 W, 1 x 8 "(Celestion Eight 15), RRP € 359
- Origin 20 Head / Combo : 20 W, top / 1 x 10 "(Celestion V Type), RRP € 549 / € 649
- Origin 50 Head / Combo : 50 W top part / 1 x 12 "Combo (Celestion G12N-60 Midnight 60), RRP € 649 / € 699
Studio (since 2019)
With the Studio series, Marshall is reviving well-known classics in smaller 20 W versions. These amplifiers are built using tube technology (three ECC83, two EL34) with circuits very close to the prototypes and are manufactured in England. Unlike their models, however, they have a power reduction to 5 W, FX Loop and DIOut, which should make them particularly suitable for recording in the studio.
- Studio Vintage (SV20H / SV20C): 20 W top part 1x12 ”Combo (Celestion V Type), based on Plexi, RRP € 999 / € 1099
- Studio Classic (SC20H / SC20C): 20 W top part 1x12 ”Combo (Celestion V Type), based on JCM800, RRP € 999 / € 1099
- Studio Jubilee (2525H / 2525C): top / 1x12 ”combo (Celestion Greenback G12M-25), the model that has been available for more than 20 W Reissue has been integrated into the Studio series, RRP € 899 / € 999
Effect devices (selection)
- Marshall Guv'nor: The "original pedal" that appeared on the market in 1988 to imitate the JCM800 for the following small versions: BluesBreaker, DriveMaster and ShredMaster.
- ED-1 Compressor
- VT-1 vibratrem
- RG-1 regenerator
- EH-1 echo head
- RF-1 reflector
- JH-1 jackhammer
- BB-2 bluesbreaker
- GV-2 Guvnor
The task of a guitar amplifier is initially to only amplify the natural sound of the instrument. The sound of the guitar is perceived as “clean” with a linear amplification. Since there are many different types and variants for electric guitars and pickups , they also have different electrical characteristics. Many amplifiers have and had separate inputs with different sensitivities (Hi for guitars with a low output voltage and Lo for guitars with a higher output power).
If the output power of the guitar is now higher than was intended for the electrical dimensioning of the amplifier, or if the "wrong" input is used, the amplifier begins to overdrive. This creates non-linear distortion, which changes the natural sound with increasing degree of overload. More on this under non-linear distortion . Some musicians who were also in the audience from Jim Marshall's store found this more "aggressive" sound to be beneficial to their music.
Although this effect can in principle be achieved with any amplifier with a suitable input power, it was Marshall who, as early as the 1960s, first systematically dealt with the targeted generation of this effect and the design of distortion in his products. Particular emphasis was placed on researching the origin and characteristics of distortions at the various points in the signal chain. Overdriving the preamp is called distortion , and overdriving the output stage is called overdrive . Both together result in the overall sound impression of the distortion.
Amazingly, these properties of Marshall products were not initially copied by other manufacturers of guitar amplifiers. The listening habits of the general public had probably not yet got used to this distortion and the aggressive sound of Pete Townshend or Jimi Hendrix . Precisely because of this, however, musicians who used Marshall products at the end of the 1960s came across as “harder” with their audience. Especially European musicians and bands who were inspired by this type of music (e.g. Deep Purple , Black Sabbath , Led Zeppelin or Judas Priest ) have helped popularize the "Marshall sound" since the late 1960s .
Since it is desirable for the characteristic Marshall sound to achieve distortion in both the preamp and the power amplifier, it was common until the mid-1970s to play the amplifiers at maximum volume. Following a suggestion by Eddie van Halen , a second volume control (master volume) was added at the end of the preamp , which limits the audio signal in its strength before it reaches the power amplifier . Thus, as before, the pre-stage could be brought into the desired distortion by turning up the volume control, but the effective amplifier power (volume) of the output stage could be regulated separately with the new master volume. Here, of course, the characteristic output stage distortion was omitted, which is still only achieved when the amplifier is at full power. From this idea, the Marshall "MK II Masters Series" amplifier series arose from 1976. This modification was so successful that it can now be found in almost all all-tube guitar amplifiers from a certain performance class.
Marshall is now the world's leading manufacturer of guitar amplifiers. The products are developed and manufactured in Bletchley, England, by a team of technicians and musicians. Marshall also has production facilities in China and South Korea, primarily for the entry-level models of the "MG" series. Marshall obtains its specially manufactured and selected electron tubes with the "Marshall" logo from the New Sensor Corporation . Jim Marshall's daughter Victoria Marshall is the company's Managing Director, and his son Terry is an active saxophonist. For interested visitors who register in advance, there are also guided tours through the production facility, the in-house rehearsal and concert hall, and through a small museum with exhibits from the company's history. There is a dedicated customer support center, which receives devices for repair, carries out error diagnoses ("while you wait") and also provides replacement devices.
Several books have been written about Jim Marshall, his company and his life, including The History of Marshall by Michael Doyle and The Father of Loud (German title: "Pionier des Rocksounds" ) by Rich Maloof. Dr. Jim Marshall, OBE, born in 1923, died on April 5, 2012.
- The trade name "JCM 800" used from 1981 for the amplifier of the type 2203 came from the license plate of Jim Marshall's car.
- Nigel Tufnel, the guitarist of the fictional English rock band Spinal Tap , had his Marshalls modified in the film This Is Spinal Tap in such a way that their dials had a scale from “0” to “11” instead of the usual maximum of “10” the reason that 11 is “one louder”.
- Marshall added its own "Gain" control to the JCM-900 Hi-Gain series, which even had a scale from "0" to "20". Additionally, Marshall hired Nigel Tufnel's actor to promote this amp. ... that's nine louder innit!
- Official German Marshall website
- Official Marshall English website
- German Marshall Museum
- Overview of the Marshall model history
References and comments
- Marshall Amplification Plc key data suite.endole.co.uk, accessed June 4, 2018
- Michael Doyle: The History of Marshall . Hal Leonard Corporation, Milwaukee, ISBN 0-7935-2509-8 .
- Torsten Hampel: Make it louder. In: Der Tagesspiegel . July 21, 2012.
- Marshall website: History of the development of Marshall products ( Memento of the original from August 28, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- 2203, Owner's Manual, Marshall Amplification Quote: […] it was also our first amplifier to house a Master Volume (MV) control. This simple but groundbreaking feature allowed the user to overdrive the preamp valves into desirable distortion without having to turn the amp full up. This proved to be incredibly popular and practical because, as you probably know, a 100 Watt Marshall is extremely loud when on full volume! [...]
- https://www.gitarrebass.de/equipment/marshall-jcm-800-serie/ Marshall JCM 800-Serie, Guitar & Bass, Ebo Wagner, December 19, 2018.
- Eric Clapton, Guitar Player Magazine, 1985, quote: I was probably playing full-volume to get that sound. I was playing a Marshall 50-watt
- Murray Engelhart with Arnaud Durieux: AC / DC, Maximum Rock 'n' Roll . Heyne Verlag, Munich, ISBN 978-3-453-12115-7 . Quote: To get that sound, we just took a couple of Marshalls and turned them up to the max ...
- Eddie Van Halen in the English language Wikipedia
- http://orf.at/#/stories/2113857/ Amplifier pioneer Jim Marshall died, ORF.at April 5, 2012.
- 2203, Owner's Manual, Marshall Amplification Quote: … If you're wondering about the origin of the JCM 800 name, it's an interesting tale - it came from the registration / license plate of Mr. Marshall's car which was, wait for it, JCM 800! The 'JCM' part of it referred to Jim's initials (James Charles Marshall), the '800' was merely the number on the plate - no more, no less! ...