Posavina ("area on the Save"), also Germanized Posavia , is the area on both sides of the lower Save in today's Croatia , Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia . The name appeared for the first time in the 9th century as a designation for a border mark of the Franconian Empire .
The western part of the Posavina (Save lowlands) is today the demographic and economic center of Croatia. Much of its course is the border river between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina . The eastern part from Vukovar is called Syrmia and in the far east Batschka .
Today two administrative regions bear the name Posavina:
- The Posavina Canton , the smallest of the ten cantons in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina . The canton, on the southern bank of the Sava, only covers a very small part of the Posavina region.
- The Brod-Posavina , an administrative district in the southern part of the Croatian region Slavonia , along the north bank of the Save.
The fertile and water-rich region was already settled in the Neolithic . The first known residents were the Skordisker , later the Pannonians , who were incorporated into the Roman Empire under Emperor Augustus . The area now belonged to " Pannonia inferior " ( Lower Pannonia ). Shortly after the fall of the Huns, a short-lived Suebi empire established itself for a few years, and since then the region has also been called "Pannonia Savia".
Under Justinian I , the Posavina (Pannonia inferior) could be added back to the Byzantine Empire, which is evidenced by the construction of some forts.
At the end of the great migration , the Avars conquered the land between the Drava and Save . With them, Slavic settlers came into the country (see theory of the conquest of the Slavs in the Balkans , refuted by Florin Curta).
The Avars left it to the Bulgarians in 635, but they soon moved to Macedonia and in 684 founded an empire in Western Macedonia and Albania, which later merged with the Danube Empire of Asparuch to form the Greater Bulgarian Empire and achieved hegemony over south-eastern Europe. At the same time, the Byzantine Empire is slowly melting away and the Avars, who are now also threatened by the strengthened Bulgarians, sometimes seek help from the Frankish Empire.
In 791 Charlemagne conquered the area from the Avars . In 793 he rearranged the Longobard and Avar regions and installed local rulers in Slavic regions as princes in suzeraines (vassals) of the Frankish Empire . In 799 the Posavina area was formally annexed to the Byzantine Empire, as the Byzantines pay the Bulgarians annual tributes to maintain their imperial borders.
Franconian border region Posavina
Under Emperor Ludwig the Pious , the Posavina border march was established on the Save, which bordered the margravates Friuli and Istria in the west and the margraviate Carniola in the north . Formally, the Grenzmark is subordinate to the Margraviate of Carniola. However, this is administered by the Marquis of Friuli.
In 803 Khan Krum came to the throne and began an aggressive policy of expansion, under him the Bulgarian Empire finally reached its maximum extent and led him to the gates of Constantinople. Therefore, the Grenzmark was raised to the Principality of Posavina in 804, with the Croatian vassal Vojnomir rising to prince. The princes of Posavina - like the princes of Liburia and Narentania - were subordinate to the Franconian Carniola, administered by the Duke of Friuli. Between 804 and 810 there were numerous confrontations between Franks and Bulgarians.
In 810, Ljudevit became Prince of Posavina. In 818/819 he tried to shake off the Frankish suzerainty. Obviously, he led a war against his uncle Borna, the prince of Narentania , who teams up with Ljudevits father Dragomuž together and be beaten in the battle of the Kulpa 819th Borna fell in 821, followed in 821 by his nephew Vladislav ( Ladasclavus ) as Prince of Narentania. Soon after, Ljudevit was defeated by the Franks under Margrave Balderich of Friuli and fled to the Serbs in 823 (“ad Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur”). There he killed his host, the Serbian prince, subjugated his city and then fled to Borna's uncle Ljudemisl, who had him killed - probably at the request of the Franks.
With the approval of Slavic as the fourth teaching language of the church in 863, the influence of the Franks sank dramatically by expelling their priests in all Slavic principalities, since Slavic princes used this to get rid of the priesthood who came from the Franconian Empire. As a result, Slavic languages prevailed both in the Bulgarian Empire and in the Slavic principalities.
Princes of Posavina (Panonska Hrvatska or Pannonia inferior) were:
- Vojnomir (presumably 804–810) under Margrave Aio of Friuli (808–817)
- Ljudevit (810–823), Latin Liudewitus under Margrave Chadaloh I of Friuli (817–819) Balderich of Friuli (819–829)
- Ratimir (829 / 831–838), son of Lyudevit under Margrave Unroch II of Friuli (829 - ???)
- no information, probably a vassal of the Greater Bulgarian Empire
- Braslav (880-896)
From 925 Posavina was united with Narentania and became the independent Kingdom of Croatia under Tomislav (rex croatorum).
Kingdoms of Croatia and Hungary
With the strengthening of the Croatian and Hungarian rulers, Posavina became independent in 925 and together with Narentania (Primorska Hrvatska or Pagania, Croatian: Neretvani) became the Kingdom of Croatia . From 1102 it became part of Hungary as a result of the personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary. The Bosnian King Tvrtko I (1338-1391) succeeded in incorporating the Posavina into his empire, but soon after his death it became part of Croatia again under the Hungarian monarchy.
Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Monarchy
It only stayed that way until 1463, when Posavina was conquered by the Ottomans . In the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, the Posavina and all of Slavonia came to Austria , which established a military border with the Ottoman Empire there. In the peace treaty of 1719 between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire, the borders of the Posavina were set, which did not change until 1939.
Yugoslavia, Croatia and Bosnia
After the First World War , the region belonged to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and from 1929 to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . When the "Banschaft Croatia" ( Banovina Hrvatska ) was created within the kingdom on August 29, 1939, the part of Posavina south of the Save was added. After the creation of the so-called Independent Croatian State in April 1941, Posavina was part of it. After the Second World War , it was initially part of Yugoslavia again before it was divided between Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina as a result of the Yugoslav Wars . The region suffered very badly in the Bosnian War , when many towns were looted and burned to the ground.
The area is named for:
- Ivan Crkvenčić: The Posavina Border Region of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina: Development up to 1918 (with special reference to change in ethnic composition). In: Društvena istraživanja - Časopis za opća društvena pitanja. No. 1-2, 2004, Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar, Zagreb, pp. 293-314.
- Ivan Crkvenčić: The Posavina Border Region of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina: Development up to 1918 (with special reference to change in ethnic composition). In: Društvena istraživanja - Časopis za opća društvena pitanja. No. 3, 2004, Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar, Zagreb, pp. 579-595.
- Nada Klaić: Ljudevit Posavski. In: Enciklopedija Jugoslavije . 1st edition. Zagreb 1962.
- Peter Jordan: Croatia and European integration . In: Albert Hofmayer (Ed.): Contributions to service geography and applied regional economic geography. Festschrift for Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Staudacher on his 60th birthday (= economic geography studies ). Volumes 30-31. Verlag facultas.wuv / maudrich, 2005, ISBN 3-85114-935-1 , Fig 2.Conventional names (map), p. 80 ( limited preview in Google Book search).