Primary energy consumption
Primary energy consumption ( PEV ) is the consumption of primary energy that a process requires. The primary energy consumption results from the final energy consumption and the losses that occur when generating the final energy from the primary energy.
From an economic point of view, primary energy consumption is the total amount of primary energy supplied to an economy . It is usually determined for a period of one year. With her are energy services rendered. These include production, heating , cooling, moving, electronic data processing , telecommunications or lighting. This energy is usually used again shortly after it has been extracted . A part is stored in coal heaps , natural gas caverns , oil tank farms or oil caverns.
The term energy consumption is imprecise in the physical sense, since energy cannot be consumed ( energy conservation law ), but only converted ( energy conversion ) or devalued ( energy devaluation ). What is actually consumed are the (conventional) energy sources used.
Energy sources used
The energy sources used are:
Determination of consumption
The Working Group on Energy Balances defines primary energy consumption as follows:
- Primary energy consumption in the country = energy supply in the country - export - deep sea bunkering - stockpiling.
The domestic energy volume results from:
- Domestic energy production = domestic energy production + imports + stock withdrawals
The domestic primary energy consumption results from the domestic energy supply, adjusted for the trade balance with foreign countries and changes in storage levels.
In the case of the energy carriers that convert their energy by burning and whose calorific value is known (mainly fossil energy carriers), the respective calorific value is multiplied by the respective amount used. For the energy sources biomass, garbage and sewage sludge , if no calorific value is known, the substitution method described below is used to determine the energies involved in primary energy consumption.
The evaluation of nuclear energy is based on an efficiency of 33% in the conversion of energy into electricity. In the primary energy consumption, the nuclear power flows with more than three times the energy of the electricity generated by the nuclear power. Compared to the substitution method, the efficiency method leads to a higher proportion of primary energy in the case of nuclear energy and a lower proportion of the other energy sources.
When generating electricity from other energy sources, e.g. B. regenerative energies such as water power, wind or photovoltaics, only the generated electrical energy flows into the primary energy consumption. This assumes an efficiency of 100% for calculating the primary energy consumption. The energy sources hydropower, wind or photovoltaics are, compared to energy sources whose implementation uses a low level of efficiency, strongly underrepresented in the statistics on primary energy consumption, for example by a factor of 3 in relation to nuclear power without combined heat and power . In 2006 none of the operating nuclear power plants in Germany had a combined heat and power system.
The balance of the external electricity trade is also directly included in the primary energy consumption, here too an efficiency of 100% is assumed, so to speak, for the balance of the imported electricity. Germany has been an electricity exporter on balance since 2003, with a record export surplus of around 5% of gross electricity generation in 2013 (status at the end of 2013).
The energies thus determined are in the primary energy consumption adds up .
The substitution method is also based on the calorific value and the quantities of energy sources used.
However, when calculating the primary energy consumption with the substitution method, it is assumed that the electricity from the energy sources to which no calorific value can be assigned (nuclear power, hydropower, wind and photovoltaics), and possibly the electricity import balance, replaces (substitutes) the corresponding electricity generation in conventional thermal power plants. The energy of the conventional energy sources is then used for the calculation, which would have been necessary on average to generate the “replaced” electricity.
The share of renewable energies in primary energy consumption is different depending on the calculation, whether according to the substitution method or the efficiency principle. For example, the share of renewable energies in Germany in 2005 was 4.6% according to the efficiency principle and around 6.6% according to the substitution method.
Until 1994, the substitution method was used in Germany to determine primary energy consumption.
The primary energy consumption is usually given as energy related to a certain period of time (often one year). The standardized unit of energy is the watt second ( joule ). Because a watt-second is quite small in relation to typical primary energy information, watt hours (Wh) or their multiples are usually used in practice (see prefixes for units of measurement ):
- 1 kJ / year (kilojoules / year ) = joules / year = 0.0317 mW
- 1 MJ / year (megajoules / year) = joules / year = 0.0317 watts
- 1 GJ / year (gigajoules / year) = joules / year = 0.0317 kW
- 1 TJ / year (terajoules / year) = joules / year = 0.0317 MW
- 1 PJ / year (petajoules / year) = joules / year = 0.0317 GW
- 1 EJ / year (Exajoule / year) = Joule / year = 0.0317 TW
Energy per unit of time (e.g. petajoules per year) represents a unit of power. Thus, the primary energy consumption within a certain period of time can also be viewed as the average power consumption during this period. For Germany, for example, the primary energy consumption in 2004 was 14,438 PJ. This corresponds to an average output of 458 GW or 5.55 kW per capita for a population of 82.5 million people.
Many other units can also be found in older literature; some of them are still used today. Examples are:
- TWh per year
- Million kWh per year
- Million tonnes of coal equivalent per year
- Billion BTU per year
- Million barrels of oil per year
- G t ÖE (Eng. Oe) per year
Watt hours and multiples thereof (such as kWh or TWh) are not SI units, but as the product of the SI unit watt and the hour permitted for use in connection with the International System of Units (SI) , they are often considered to conform to the standard.
Final energy consumption
The energy supplied to end customers in Germany is known as final energy . Before the energy is delivered to the end customer, the primary energies are partially converted. For example, the chemical energy of coal is converted into electrical energy in power plants and provided as electrical power, or crude oil (petroleum) is converted into fuel in refineries. Since part of the energy is lost during the conversion (or converted physically more correctly into forms of energy that can no longer be used), the total of the final energy consumption is lower than the total of the primary energy consumption. The primary energy consumption, which was determined according to the efficiency principle, also includes all conversion and transmission losses, apart from the exception described under the efficiency principle . Since some of the primary energy carriers are first converted into secondary energy carriers (e.g. electricity or fuels), the distribution of final energy consumption by energy carrier differs considerably from that of primary energy consumption.
At the end consumer, too, there is often an energy conversion to provide an energy service. If the losses of this conversion stage are subtracted from the final energy consumption, the result is called useful energy .
|Statistics type||Share in PEV 2011||Share in PEV 2018|
|total||13,599 PJ||12,900 PJ|
Gross final energy consumption
The gross final energy consumption consists of the energy products (electricity, district heating, petrol, diesel, gas, etc.) that are supplied to industry, the transport sector, households, the service sector, including the public service sector, as well as agriculture, forestry and fishing for energy purposes be together. The electricity and heat consumption that the energy industry needs for electricity and heat generation is also added. Furthermore, the losses in electricity, heat distribution and transmission are also included.
In 2009, the European Parliament decided (Directive 2009/28 / EC) as a binding target for the entire EU to increase the share of renewable sources in gross final energy consumption to 20% by 2020 or, in the transport sector, a share of renewable energy sources of at least To reach 10%. Different national target values were set, for Germany the share of renewable energies in gross final energy consumption is to be increased to 18% by 2020.
|Final energy consumption (according to energy balance)||9 239 PJ||9 098 PJ||8 692 PJ||9 060 PJ|
|Flare and line losses (electricity)||106 PJ||108 PJ||90 PJ||87 PJ|
|Flare and line losses (heat)||39 PJ||37 PJ||37 PJ||37 PJ|
|Own consumption of power plants and heating plants (electricity)||141 PJ||138 PJ||128 PJ||143 PJ|
|Self-consumption of power plants and thermal power plants (heat)||0||0||0||0|
|Gross final energy consumption||9 524 PJ||9 382 PJ||8,947 PJ||9 327 PJ|
|Total renewable energy sources||769 PJ||1 147 PJ||1,201 PJ||1,366 PJ|
|Share of renewable energies in gross final energy consumption||8.1%||12.2%||13.4%||14.6%|
Consumption by country
Primary energy consumption in Germany in 2018 was around 13,106 petajoules (PJ), corresponding to 3,753 billion kWh.
In 2011, primary energy consumption in Europe ( OECD countries) was approx. 73,060 petajoules (PJ), corresponding to 20,300 billion kWh ( indicated in the source as 1,745 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe)).
In 2011, primary energy consumption worldwide was 532,400 petajoules (PJ), corresponding to 147,900 billion kWh ( indicated in the source as 12,717 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe)).
- Working group on energy balances: Current primary energy consumption in Germany
- State working group on energy balances
- Converter for energy units
- Foreword to the energy balances for the Federal Republic of Germany (PDF; 165 kB), accessed on September 15, 2013
- Foreword to the energy balances for the FRG. ( Memento of the original from April 9, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) Working Group on Energy Balances
- Methodology for the formation of indicators in PEV. ( Memento of the original from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Federal Environment Agency
- Graphics and tables on the development of renewable energies in Germany. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ( MS Powerpoint ) Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, May 2006
- Evaluation tables for the energy balance for the Federal Republic of Germany 1990 to 2012 ( memento of the original from March 6, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) As of July 2013, accessed on September 14, 2013.
- Primary energy consumption in Germany in 2018 . BMWi . Retrieved January 14, 2020.
- Directive 2009/28 / EC (PDF)
- Energy consumption in Germany in 2011. ( Memento of the original from August 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen e. V. (as of March 5, 2012)
- Key World Energy Statistics . (PDF; 6.1 MB) International Energy Agency (IAE), Paris 2012