Saint Lawrence Outside the Walls
|Saint Lawrence Outside the Walls|
|Patronage :||Lawrence of Rome|
|Consecration day :||4th century|
|Address:||Piazzale del Verano, 3
Saint Laurentius Outside the Walls ( Latin basilica Sancti Laurentii extra muros , Italian San Lorenzo fuori le mura , also San Lorenzo al Verano , also called the venerable basilica ) is a church in Rome . It is a papal minor basilica and is one of the seven pilgrimage churches in Rome. It is consecrated to St. Lawrence and, according to tradition, was originally built by Emperor Constantine . It is also the station church on the 3rd Sunday of Lent.
In 451, with the Council of Chalcedon , it became the Patriarchal Basilica for the Patriarchate of Jerusalem , i.e. the Church of the Patriarch if he was in Rome at the Holy See , and thus one of the main churches of Christianity. In 846 it was sacked by Saracen pirates. The patriarchate itself, which was largely lost in the following centuries due to schisms and counter-patriarchates and which was part of the Eastern Church in multiple claims , was restored for Rome in the Crusades in the Holy Land in 1099 with the Kingdom of Jerusalem . In 1302 it was finally lost and was only given title to San Lorenzo. But because in 1889 the (Latin) Patriarchate of Jerusalem was restored again and the title of the Patriarchal Basilica on Ss. Sepulchris , the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, this one of the five ancient Roman patriarchal churches is not a major basilica , but only a minor basilica of rank. The church itself retained the title, only from now on as the basilica of the Patriarch of the West , the Pope himself. In 2006, the title of the patriarchal basilica for the Roman churches was finally abandoned and the title of San Lorenzo was changed to the papal basilica .
One of Pope Sixtus III. (432–440) built neighboring Marienkirche was in the 13th century by Honorius III. united with the Laurentius Church, the older church became the choir of the newer one, which forms a colloquial basilica . Sankt Laurentius has been rebuilt and restored several times, most recently until 1948 after severe damage from Allied bombs in 1943, but it has retained the basic features of an early Christian basilica . It is the most famous "burial church" in the city, as the large Campo Verano cemetery adjoins its building . There is a Romanesque cloister behind the church .
Under a canopy is the altar with a shrine containing the relics of Saint Lawrence and Saint Stephen . Behind it is the sarcophagus of Pope Pius IX. and relics of all who were beatified or canonized under his pontificate .
- Antonio Muñoz: La Basilica di S.Lorenzo fuori le mura , Rome 1944
- Richard Krautheimer , Wolfgang Frankl: S. Lorenzo fuori le mura , in Richard Krautheimer: Corpus basilicarum christianarum Romae , Volume 2, Città del Vaticano 1962, pp. 1–144.
- Daniela Mondini: S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura in Rome. The building and its liturgical furnishings in the 13th century , in the Georges Bloch Yearbook of the Art History Department of the University of Zurich 2, 1995, pp. 12–29.
- Simonetta Sperra: La viabilità tardoantica e medievale dalla porta Tiburtina a San Lorenzo fuori le mura. Una nota , In: Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma , Volume 99 (1998), pp. 125-144.
- Simonetta Ciranna: Spolia e caratteristiche del reimpiego nella Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura a Roma , Rome 2000, ISBN 88-86599-41-2 .
- Official site (Italian)
- Page on the homepage of the Diocese of Rome ( Memento of January 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Italian)
- Barbara Kreutz: Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries , University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996, page 27 ISBN 978-0812215878
- Information about the organ (Italian)