Santa Dorotea (Rome)
|Consecration day :|
|Cardinal priest :||Javier Lozano Barragán|
Via di Santa Dorotea
Santa Dorotea , also Santi Silvestro e Dorotea , is a Roman Catholic Church in Rome . In its present form, it comes from the middle of the 18th century on the remains of some previous buildings. It is the parish church and monastery church of the Franciscan Minorites . The brotherhoods living in the monastery played an important role in founding both the Theatin and Piarist religious orders . The basic structure of Santa Dorotea is unusual for Roman churches, it represents a mixture of central building and single-nave nave .
Location and naming
The church is on the right side of the Tiber in the XIII. Roman Rione Trastevere , about 200 meters west of the Tiber bridge Ponte Sisto . Originally a previous building was dedicated to St. New Year's Eve , so mentioned as San Silvestro della Malva , the additional patronage of St. Dorothea appears for the first time in 1492, but prevailed over the following centuries. Both church patrons also appear in a Spanish source from the 16th century.
History and building history
It is ultimately not clear when the first church building was built at this point. The 4th, 8th and 11th centuries are mentioned. The church is mentioned for the first time in a bull of Pope Calixtus II from 1123, at that time it was probably a subsidiary church of Santa Maria in Trastevere . In 1475 it was either completely renovated or rebuilt. There are descriptions of its appearance, it had three aisles with a length of 10.48 meters, a width of 5.56 meters and a height of 7.36 meters. The brotherhood Compagnia del Divino Amore - Latin : Confraternitas Presbytorum et Clericorum ac Laicorum sub invocatione Divini Amoris - founded by a Genoese notary - can be traced back to Rome in 1513, and it merged with the parish of the church in 1516/17. Connections to San Giacomo degli Incurabili are known. The brotherhood went under in the turmoil of the Sacco di Roma in 1527, but two of its members, the then cardinal and later Pope Paul IV and the later Saint Kajetan von Thiene , founded the Theatine order in 1524. In 1597 Joseph von Calasanza built the first public and free boys' school in Europe in the rooms of the monastery, which is seen as the beginning of the Piarist order. Before 1718 the church was restored and possibly at least partially frescoed . The Franciscan Minorites acquired the church by purchase in 1729 and other neighboring land, also by purchase in 1734. A completely new building was decided in 1750 and started from 1751 under Giovanni Battista Nolli , he is also buried in the church. The building was completed - except for the six side altars - in October 1756. After the Camillians had temporarily owned it from 1798 to 1800, ownership was finally transferred to the Franciscans in 1818. Restorations followed in 1879 and 1931, with the second restoration again frescoes were painted in the church.
On June 12, 2014, Santa Dorotea was elevated to the title Church. So far the only cardinal priest is:
- Javier Cardinal Lozano Barragán since June 12, 2014
The facade is uniaxial and single-storey, it is one of the last Roman church facades to be built concave . The portal, the inscription above and the inserted window are each flanked by two wide, double pilasters with capitals according to composite order, with the outer pilasters being backed again. The slightly cranked cornice supports the deep, twice staggered triangular gable . The inscription reads: OMNIPOTENTI DEO / IN HONOREM / SS SYLVESTRI PAPAE / AC / DOROTHEAE VIRGINIS / ET MARTYRIS (“To the Almighty God in honor of the Holy Pope Silvester and the virgin and martyr Dorothea”). In the segment gable of the portal there is a symbol of the Franciscans, two crossed arms with a cross above, the symbol can be found again in the middle part of the floor under the dome.
Interior and outfit
The interior of the church is a compromise between a central domed structure and a single-nave hall church, described in literature as a "stretched central building scheme". The elongated room is structured by the yokes of the vaults, a smaller one immediately after the entrance or in front of the apse and a larger one in the elements between these and the central dome room. All yokes are designed as barrel vaults, with the exception of the dome room. The set pilasters have uniform capitals according to composite order, the girdle arches ultimately structure the room. The continuous, cranked cornice is provided with a tooth cut . The marbling of open areas is not real, it is painted marble from the 19th century - in its original form the church was white inside.
The dome is designed in the form of a hanging dome , it is structured with ribs, in the fields of which rosettes are embedded. The frescoes in the dome represent: the vision of St. Anthony , a glory of St. Francis of Assisi , followed by a picture of this saint, Francis, flying to Assisi and finally the death of St. Clare .
The barrel on the right cross arm contains three frescoes from the 20th century, depicting St. Josef von Calasanz - right -, in the middle St. Pudentiana and on the left of St. Kajetan von Thiene and Blessed Andreas von Segni .
The apse still comes from the previous building, an older picture of the Virgin Mary with sculpted silver crowns of Mary and Jesus is embedded in the large-format central painting of the church patron.
- Brigitte Kuhn-Forte: Handbook of the Churches of Rome . Founded by Walter Buchowiecki. 4th volume, Verlag Brüder Hollinek, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-85119-266-4 .
- Kuhn-Forte: Handbook of the Churches of Rome , p. 414.
- Kuhn-Forte: Handbook of the Churches of Rome , p. 413.
- Kuhn-Forte: Handbook of the Churches of Rome , p. 415.
- Kuhn-Forte: Handbook of the Churches of Rome , p. 419.
- Kuhn-Forte: Handbook of the Churches of Rome , p. 422.
- Information on the organ
- Homepage of the municipality (Italian)