Santi Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia

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Basic data
Patronage : Saint Vitus , Saint Modestus and Saint Crescentia
Title Church: be 1088
Cardinal Deacon : Giuseppe Bertello
Completion: 1474
Rite: Roman rite
Address: Via Carlo Alberto, 47, 00185 Roma, Italy
Apse of the church with the Gallienus arch

Santi Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia is a Roman Catholic parish church and titled deaconry in Rome .

The church is usually called Santi Vito e Modesto . She has from Santa Maria Maggiore the task of the parish church of the parish of Santa Maria Maggiore in San Vito. It is the only case in which the cardinal title, church and parish have different names.

It is the Holy Martyrs Vitus , his nurse Crescentia and her husband Modestus ordained . It is located in the Rione Esquilino near the Servian Wall on the Arch of Gallienus and the Oratory of Santa Maria Immacolata della Concezione. The facade looks onto Via Carlo Alberto, while the entrance is on Via San Vito.


The church was first mentioned in the Liber Pontificalis during the pontificate of Pope Leo III. (795-816) mentioned. The original name was San Vito in Macello Martyrum, or "The Martyrs' Market". A Macello was an old Roman market in a hall. The ancient Macellum Liviae may be whoever the name refers to. It was next to the Servian Wall on the 4th-century Arch of Gallienus, a large passage within the city. During the last restoration of the church, the walls and stone blocks were found.

The original dedication was to Saint Vitus, a 4th century martyr in Sicily . He became very popular in the Middle Ages as the patron saint of epileptics and was counted among the fourteen helpers in need. In England and other countries he became Guy and in Italy Guido .

The church was called the Diakonie, a center of charitable work, and received from Pope Leo III. Donate. This suggests that it was founded at a time when there was a local population, around the 6th century, when the Esquilines lost the population afterwards.

According to tradition, she became titular deaconry in 1088. The first cardinal of this diakonia was the Benedictine monk Leo Marsicanus . This suggests that there was a small Benedictine monastery nearby. At the same time, the non-historical legend about the martyrdom of Saint Vitus became popular. There the martyr couple named Modestus and Crescentia were described as their guardian and nanny. The church in San Vitale e Modesto was then renamed Macello Martyrum , which is also the name of the cardinal title. There were no cardinals between 1159 and 1387.

Later in the Middle Ages it was renamed Santi Vitale, Modesto e Crescentia, but also popularly abbreviated as Santi Vito e Modesto. Cardinal priests were also appointed in the 15th century.

Exterior view

Around 1450 the church was in ruins. It was rebuilt in 1474 by Pope Sixtus IV , whose coat of arms can be seen above the entrance door, at a different location, but probably in the immediate vicinity. At the same time it was entrusted to Cistercians . To the left of the entrance in Via di San Vito they founded a small monastery next to the church, which served as the residence for the General Procurator of the Order. The actual Tre Fontane Abbey was far from the city center.

After Mas Latrie Diakonie of 1477 was one to 1480 Title Diakonie , when she returned to her old rank of cardinal-Diakonie; again in 1565, when Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) appointed 23 new cardinals. A number of reconstructions were carried out in the centuries that followed. Pope Sixtus V , who referred the church to the Feuillanten for the foundation of the monastery, listed it again in 1587 among the deaconies in his apostolic constitution Religiosa .

Fresco in the interior

Since 1789, after the partitions of Poland , a Polish community was formed. After the French occupation, the monastery was abandoned and the church was without function.

The parish was founded in 1824 and the church was renovated by Pietro Camprese in 1836 . After 1870 the surrounding area became urbanized and at the end of the 19th century it was renovated again and the orientation of the church changed.

Between 1973 and 1977 the final restoration took place under the direction of the Soprintendenza delle Antichità di Roma and many post-medieval changes such as the orientation were changed back.

Nowadays the church is relatively inconspicuous, as churches such as Sant'Eusebio , Santa Maria del Perpetuo Soccorso and Santa Prassede are in close proximity. A small Bengali emigrant community has settled at the church. But she has no priest of her own.

inner space

In the interior there are frescoes of a Madonna and Child and saints with their attributes (e.g. Saint Sebastian by Antoniazzo Romano ). But there are also frescoes from the 19th century depicting the Madonna offering the rosary to Saint Dominic and Saint Catherine of Siena .

Cardinal deacons

The current cardinal deacon has been Cardinal Giuseppe Bertello since February 18, 2012 . For the other titleholders, see List of Cardinal Deacons by Santi Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia

Web links

Commons : Santi Vito e Modesto (Roma)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia. In: Salvador Miranda : The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. ( Florida International University website ), accessed January 4, 2019.
  2. ^ Santi Vito e Modesto . In: Churches of Rome Wiki . ( [accessed May 17, 2017]).
  3. ^ Santi Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia . In: Catholic Hierarchy . Retrieved January 3, 2013.

Coordinates: 41 ° 53 ′ 45 "  N , 12 ° 30 ′ 5.8"  E