Goiter (river)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
View of the mouth of the Struma (Strymonas) River into the Aegean Sea from Amphipolis

View of the mouth of the Struma (Strymonas) River into the Aegean Sea from Amphipolis

location Bulgaria , Greece
River system Goiter
source in the Vitosha Mountains
Source height 2180  m
muzzle Strymonic Gulf at Amphipoli Coordinates: 40 ° 47 ′ 9 "  N , 23 ° 50 ′ 56"  E 40 ° 47 ′ 9 "  N , 23 ° 50 ′ 56"  E
Mouth height m
Height difference 2180 m
Bottom slope 5.3 ‰
length 408 km
Reservoirs flowed through Kerkini lake
Medium-sized cities Blagoevgrad
The Struma River - in Bulgaria and Greece (red line)

The Struma River - in Bulgaria and Greece (red line)

Goiter in Bulgaria - water catchment area - bottom left

Goiter in Bulgaria - water catchment area - bottom left

Lion of Amphipolis at the mouth of the Strymonas in the Strymonian Gulf

Lion of Amphipolis at the mouth of the Strymonas in the Strymonian Gulf

The goiter ( Bulgarian Струма , ancient Greek Στρυμών Strymōn , modern Greek Στρυμόνας Strymonas ) is a river in southwestern Bulgaria and northern Greece .


The Struma flows from the Vitosha Mountains into the Thracian Sea in the northern Aegean and has a length of 408 km.


The source is located on the southern slope of the Vitosha Mountains at an altitude of 2180  m , 600 m away from the highest peak of the Vitosha Mountains - the Cherni Vrach (Черни връх). The river flows south through the provinces of Pernik (Перник), Kyustendil (Кюстендил) and Blagoevgrad (Благоевград) in Pirin-Macedonia and leaves the Bulgarian territory after 290 km at the village of Kulata . This makes the Struma the fifth longest river in Bulgaria after Iskar (Искър), Tundscha (Тунджа), Mariza (Марица) and Ossam (Осъм).

On Bulgarian territory, the goiter drains 10,797 km² from southwestern Bulgaria. To do this, the goiter takes in water from 42 tributaries. Most of them are mountain rivers. As a result, they have a steep gradient - up to 11%. The tributaries include (selection):

  • Konska (Конска река)
  • Dragovishitsa (Драговищица)
  • Sovoljanska Bistritsa (Бистрица)
  • Dscherman (Джерман)
  • Rila (Рилска река)
  • Ilina (Илиина река)
  • Blagoewgradska Bistritsa (Благоевградска Бистрица)
  • Sandanska Bistritsa (Санданска Бистрица)
  • Strumeschnitsa (Струмешница)

The goiter has a steep gradient up to Petritsch (Петрич). From then on, the gradient decreases to 5.3%.


The river separates the village of Strimonochori from the nearby train station, which is named after the river Strimon (Στρυμων).

The Strymonas (the goiter) flows from the Roupel Pass northwest in a short distance to the town of Promachonas in Greek territory. It flows first in the Strymonas Valley in a southerly direction to the village of Neo Petritsi . The Strymonas swings south-east of Neo Petritsi to the west and splits into two arms. The western arm flows into the dammed Kerkini Lake and flows from there further southeast, where it flows again into the eastern arm near the village of Lithotopos. The section of the river from Lithotopos, where there is a dam, is canalised to prevent flooding. Lake Kerkini is located immediately south of Mount Kerkini (Beles). It has a funnel-shaped outline and extends in its longitudinal axis from north-northwest to southeast. The original course of the river before the damming to Lake Kerkini described an arc in the northern part of the lake from east to southeast.

The Strymonas initially flows further south-east along the northeast flank of the Mavrovouni mountain . In the village of Strymoniko , which got its name from the adjacent river, the Strymonas is oriented to the east in the middle of the Strymonas plain in the Serres prefecture. In the vicinity of the village of Strymoniko, the national road 12 ( European route 79 ) passes the Strymonas on a bridge; In future, once the expansion has been completed, Autobahn 25 will bridge the Strymonas at this point.

Between the villages of Pethelinos and Mavrothalassa the Strymonas turns with an arc to the south. At the intersection of an imaginary line between the villages of Mavrothalassa and Draviskos , the Strymonas receives its most important tributary in Greece, the Angitis , which flows in from the northeast. A little further south, between the villages of Aidonochori and Paleokomi , the canalised section of the Strymonas ends.

After the end of the canalised course, the Strymonas passes in bends and turns the passage between the Kerdylio massif in the west and the Pangeo massif in the east in the form of a valley and reaches its confluence with the Strymonian Gulf . The remains of the important ancient city of Amphipolis (Ennea Odoi) are located on a hill of the Pangeo massif . Shortly before it flows into the Strymonian Gulf, the Strymonas is crossed by the Thessaloniki-Alexandroupolis-Istanbul railway line as well as by the national road 2 and the motorway 2 ( European road 90 ).

In its Greek course the Strymonas is used intensively for irrigation of agricultural areas.


In ancient times the goiter formed the border between Macedonia and Thrace , its original name was Aioneios . Because of this border function and the strategic importance associated with it, there were repeated armed conflicts in the Struma area.

According to Greek mythology, a battle took place in the estuary of the river between Dionysus and the Edonians under their king Lycurgus . The personified figure of the river god Strymon also belongs to Greek mythology . In ancient Greece, the city of Amphipolis was built with the port of Eion at the mouth of the Aegean Sea. During the Peloponnesian War , the Struma valley shortly before its mouth into the Aegean Sea was the scene of the fighting for the city of Amphipolis between Athens and Sparta ( Battle of Amphipolis , 422 BC). 356 BC When the Macedonian king Philip II conquered Amphipolis for the Macedonian kingdom, the Struma valley was again the scene of armed conflicts . The Battle of Kleidion, as part of a Byzantine-Bulgarian War, took place on this river in 1014 .

During the Balkan Wars, the Struma Valley was the scene of fighting and battles. After the former provinces of the Ottoman Empire were divided up among the victors Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece in the first Balkan War in 1912, territorial disputes about whether Thrace belonged to Greece (or Bulgaria) were part of the Second Balkan War just one year later in 1913 between Bulgaria on the one hand and Greece, Serbia and Romania on the other. In the course of the conflict between Bulgaria and Greece in 1913, the Greek army was encircled in the Kresna Gorge of the Struma and threatened to suffer a crushing defeat. With the advance of Romanian troops on Sofia, the war of Bulgaria was lost despite this military success against the Greek army ( Peace of Bucharest (1913) ). During the First World War , the lower reaches of the Struma formed part of the Salonika Front from 1916 .

The goiter between Kyustendil and Dupnitsa

From 1936, the area around the Roupel Pass at the Strymonas Valley was expanded by the Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas as part of the so-called Metaxas Line as a military protective wall against an assumed attack from Bulgarian territory. During the Second World War , this very case occurred on April 6, 1941. The Strymonas Valley and its surroundings, especially the Roupel Pass, were the scene of the invasion of Greece by Wehrmacht troops as part of the Marita company ( Balkan campaign ). Wehrmacht units attacked the fortified positions of the Greek army head-on and broke through them within a few days despite strong resistance. During the occupation of Greece in World War II, the Struma marked the western border of the Bulgarian zone of occupation.

Since 2004, the river has given its name to the Struma Glacier on Livingston Island in Antarctica.

At the beginning of December 2010, the Kyustendil river flooded and destroyed the European route 79 and the Sofia-Thessaloniki rail link in the Kresna Gorge. Also Pernik was threatened.


Web links

Commons : Struma  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Description of the Strymonas on strymonikos.net (English); Retrieved May 7, 2014
  2. map
  3. The street has disappeared ( Memento of the original from December 6, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , vesti.bg (Bulgarian). 24-часов дъжд превърна в реки столичните улици mediapool.bg. Driver missing after his truck falls in river in W. Bulgaria . focus-fen.net @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.vesti.bg