|Irish government logo|
since June 27, 2020
A Thaoisigh (Irish)
|was standing||Head of government|
Parliament (Lower House of Parliament)
Council of State
|Responsible to||Dáil Éireann|
Government Buildings ,
Dublin , Ireland
|Term of office||No fixed term of office|
|Inaugural Office Holder||Éamon de Valera|
|Creation of office||December 29, 1937|
|Last choice||June 27, 2020|
Taoiseach [ t̪iːʃəx ] (plural: Taoisigh [ t̪iːʃiː ] , [ t̪iːʃɪg ] ) is the Irish-language title of the Irish Government or the Prime Minister. The word appears in German sometimes with the Irish definite article to Taoiseach .
The Taoiseach is nominated by the Irish House of Representatives ( Dáil Éireann ), then determined by the Irish President and required to remain in office, the Dáil's trust. The incumbent Taoiseach has been Micheál Martin , a member of the Fianna Fáil party , since June 27, 2020 .
According to the Irish Constitution , the Taoiseach must be nominated by the House of Representatives (Dáil Éireann) of Parliament. In the event that the Taoiseach loses the Dáil's trust, there are two options. He can either resign or try to convince the President to dissolve the Dáil. The President can refuse this request and thus force the Taoiseach to resign. However, such a situation has not yet occurred. The Dáil can withdraw trust from the Taoiseach by a successful vote of no confidence , a failed vote of confidence, or by refusing to support. In the event of resignation, the resigned Taoiseach continues to exercise the offices until a successor is appointed.
The Taoiseach nominates the members of its government, who are then appointed by the president with the approval of the Dáil. The Taoiseach has the option to expel members from the cabinet. Among the ministers who were "discharged" were figures such as Charles J. Haughey and Neil Blaney in 1970, Brian Lenihan in 1990 and Albert Reynolds , Pádraig Flynn and Máire Geoghegan-Quinn in 1991. He is responsible for the nomination of eleven members of the Irish House of Lords , of the Seanad Éireann .
The words Taoiseach and Tánaiste (title of Vice Prime Minister) both come from the Irish language and have pre-medieval origins. Although the Taoiseach is described in the constitution as "head of government or prime minister", the original meaning of the word was "leader" or "chief". The old Irish form is toísech , too old Irish tuus , "guidance".
The earliest known evidence of the term comes from a bilingual inscription from Wales dating from the 5th or 6th century, where it is used identically in both archaic Irish in Ogham script and in British language in Latin script (TOVISACI, genitive to tovisacos ) becomes.
The office of Taoiseach was created by the Irish Constitution in 1937 and replaced the position of Chairman of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State , although the two offices differed in some fundamental ways. The chairman of the executive council had far fewer powers as he could neither dismiss individual ministers (only the cabinet as a whole) nor dissolve the lower house.
There have been multi-party governments in Ireland in the past - in one such case the Taoiseach (with one exception) was always the leader of the strongest ruling party. The exception was John A. Costello, who held office as a compromise proposal instead of Richard Mulcahy (chairman of Fine Gael), as Mulcahy was not supported by the other governing parties.
List of Taoisigh
|1.||Éamon de Valera||December 29, 1937||February 18, 1948||Fianna Fáil|
|2.||John A. Costello||February 18, 1948||June 13, 1951||Fine Gael|
|Éamon de Valera||June 13, 1951||June 2, 1954||Fianna Fáil|
|John A. Costello||June 2, 1954||March 20, 1957||Fine Gael|
|Éamon de Valera||March 20, 1957||June 23, 1959||Fianna Fáil|
|3.||Seán Lemass||June 23, 1959||November 10, 1966||Fianna Fáil|
|4th||Jack Lynch||November 10, 1966||March 14, 1973||Fianna Fáil|
|5.||Liam Cosgrave||March 14, 1973||5th July 1977||Fine Gael|
|Jack Lynch||5th July 1977||December 11, 1979||Fianna Fáil|
|6th||Charles J. Haughey||December 11, 1979||June 30, 1981||Fianna Fáil|
|7th||Garret FitzGerald||June 30, 1981||March 9, 1982||Fine Gael|
|Charles J. Haughey||March 9, 1982||December 14, 1982||Fianna Fáil|
|Garret FitzGerald||December 14, 1982||March 10, 1987||Fine Gael|
|Charles J. Haughey||March 10, 1987||February 11, 1992||Fianna Fáil|
|8th.||Albert Reynolds||February 11, 1992||December 15, 1994||Fianna Fáil|
|9.||John Bruton||December 15, 1994||June 26, 1997||Fine Gael|
|10.||Bertie Ahern||June 26, 1997||May 6, 2008||Fianna Fáil|
|11.||Brian Cowen||May 7, 2008||March 9, 2011||Fianna Fáil|
|12.||Enda Kenny||March 9, 2011||June 13, 2017||Fine Gael|
|13.||Leo Varadkar||June 14, 2017||June 27, 2020||Fine Gael|
|14th||Micheál Martin||June 27, 2020||officiating||Fianna Fáil|
- This refusal ( Engl. Loss of Supply ) has not once taken place, the budget of the then government in January 1982 as the Dáil Fine Gael and Labor Party under Garret FitzGerald not approved. FitzGerald then asked President Patrick Hillery to dissolve the Dáil, which he approved.
- Article 13.1.1 and Article 28.5.1
- Sabine Ziegler: The language of the old Irish Ogam inscriptions , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht , Göttingen, 1997, ISBN 3-525-26225-6 , p. 98.
- John Thomas Koch, Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia, 2006, Volume 3, p. 1062