Weasel deafblings ( Russula mustelina )
The weasel deafening ( Russula mustelina , Syn .: R. elephantina Fr. ) is a fungus from the family of the deaf relatives , which occurs especially in the spruce forests of the low mountain ranges over silicate rock . It is a large, thick-fleshed blubber with a yellow to red-brown hat, cream-white lamellae and cream-colored spore powder. The mild meat reacts pink with iron sulfate. The weasel-deaf mushroom is a good edible mushroom, its fruiting bodies usually appear gregarious from July to October.
The 5–15 cm large hat varies in color from hazelnut brown to yellow-brownish to dark brown; light tints are rarer. The edge of the hat is mostly unrubbed. When it is dry, the hat surface is matt and dry, only young specimens have a smeary, sticky layer (see photo). Because the hats develop underground and only penetrate the top soil layer with age, humus particles often stick to the slime.
The extremely brittle lamellae are whitish to yellowish-cream-colored and are crowded. Rust-brown spots can sometimes be found on the bulbous, 5–11 mm wide lamellae and on the stem. The spore powder ( IIb according to Romagnesi ) is cream-colored and amyloid .
The short, compact stem is initially whitish, later brownish and has a slightly wrinkled surface. It is chambered and hollow and measures 3–11 × 1.3–4.5 cm. The meat is very hard when young, but becomes spongy with age. As with almost all deafblings, the stem breaks apart easily. The break point is never fibrous or smooth. The reason for this are spherical cells that are scattered in nests in the meat. These collections are called spherocytes .
The fresh meat has no smell worth mentioning and tastes mild, while drying it often smells a bit cheesy. The meat reacts pink or pink-orange with iron sulphate , and intensely blue-green with guaiac . Aniline turns the fruiting body red and the lamellae yellow.
The elliptical spores are 7.2–10 µm long and 5.7–7.4 µm wide. The Q value (quotient of spore length and width) is 1.2–1.5. The spore ornament consists of numerous small warts up to 0.3 µm high, some of which are connected to one another by more or less fine ribs.
The four-pore basidia are slender-lobed and measure 50–70 × 9–10 µm. The cheilocystidia are predominantly spindle-shaped and often somewhat constricted at their tips. They measure 30–80 × 4–9 µm, while the similar pleurocystides are 75–110 µm long and 9–12 µm wide. All cystides are numerous and stain weakly in sulfobenzaldehyde and only partially gray-black.
The hat cover layer consists of cylindrical to pointed, mostly septate and branched, 2.5–9 µm wide hairs. In between there are 3.5–7 µm wide pileocystids which can hardly be stained with sulfobenzaldehyde, the hyphal walls are weakly gelatinized.
The also edible brown leather blubber is very similar . This one usually has less hard hat meat and darker fins. Brown-capped forms of the green or flesh-red edible deaf can also be very similar . Their spore powder is pure white. Other brown-colored pigeons are hot or bitter when raw.
Coniferous and mixed forests in the mountains are the preferred habitat of the weasel-deaf. There its fruiting bodies appear mostly gregarious from July to September, below 500 m above sea level it is very rare. As a mycorrhizal fungus, it lives in symbiosis with conifers, especially spruce. Not infrequently it grows on forest paths and is then often knocked over or trodden on by walkers. The Wieseltäubling grows almost exclusively over primary rock such as granite , gneiss , Werfener layers , red sandstone or Flinz . It avoids lime and is bound to nutrient-poor, sandy-acidic soils. According to Krieglsteiner, the fungus is also an indicator of drought.
The weasel pigeon is widespread in Europe, North Asia (Russia-Far East), North Africa (Morocco) and North America (USA), it occurs from the Mediterranean zone to the northern coniferous forest zone, to the north the fungus was still found in Lapland. In Western Europe, the species occurs in the low mountain range, in Southeastern Europe especially in the high mountains.
In Germany, the Wiesel-Täubling is mainly found in the low mountain ranges, north of the 52nd parallel it is extremely rare in Germany. In certain areas, such as the Black Forest, it is common in places, but overall it shows a clear tendency to decline (in Baden-Württemberg risk group G3). In Switzerland it is mainly found above 600 meters, on average at around 1700 meters above sea level. In the relatively flat area from Lake Geneva to Lake Constance, it was only detected sporadically. In certain years the Täubling can be common in Switzerland, otherwise it is rather rare.
In older literature, the weasel-deafling is often called Russula elephantina . Singer also used this name in his Russula monograph, arguing that the name, introduced by James Bolton in 1788 , was older. However, the assignment is by no means certain. The name Russula elephantina can also stand for various larger pigeons in the Compactae section , which is why the name mustelina , introduced by Fies in 1838, is used today .
The Wieseltäubling is from Bon into the subsection Heterophyllinae , which in turn is in the section Heterophyllae . Examining R-DNA and the findings of the mycrrhizal anatomy show, however, that it is less related to the other representatives of the subsection. The Täubling stands rather between the Griseinae and the Heterophyllinae .
The following varieties have been described:
|Russula mustelina var. Iodiolens||Bon & Robert||The variety is similar to the type, but smaller. The hat is only 5 (7) cm wide and the hat skin is usually clearly frosted. The unpleasant smell of iodine is typical. In contrast to the type, the spores are almost completely ornamented.|
|Russula mustelina var. Fulva||Receipt||The (4) 5–7 (9) cm wide hat is smaller than the type. The hat skin is also dull and almost velvety or slightly cracked at the edge. The hat is reddish brown at first, but fades to a brownish yellow. The lamellae are cream-colored when young, then more or less rust-colored. The stalk is 4–5 µm long and 1–2 cm wide, white-brownish, frosted and smooth. The Täubling occurs under various deciduous trees down to the lowlands.|
The Wiesel-Täubling is a well-known, much sought-after edible mushroom. Reasons for this are probably its very good aroma and its productivity. In contrast to other mushrooms (such as the ripe mushroom ) it is very rarely attacked by maggots.
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