NBC protection

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Tactical sign for NBC protection
NBC special protective clothing Zodiak of the Bundeswehr

As NBC protection refers to the protection against a Tomaren, b iologischen and c hemischen threats including weapons of mass destruction or hazardous materials accidents , for example, directly by NBC protective masks , shelters and bunkers , but also more broadly through Abspüren endangered and demarcation of contaminated environments.

Alternative names to the acronym "ABC" commonly used in German-speaking countries are:

  • CBRN (from chemical, biological , radiological and nuclear or English Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear ) as NBC protection with the specification of the classic term "atomic hazards": radiological (radioactive, radiating substances) and nuclear (e.g. Nuclear weapons, nuclear accidents) incidents,
  • or CBRNE (CBRN supplemented by potentially explosive substances, in English: "explosives") for the express expansion of incidents with explosives ,
  • as well as GSG (for hazardous substances and goods ), the latter designation hiding atomic and biological pollutants that are not stored or transported as goods.

Accordingly, in an application scenario with such dangers, one speaks of an ABC use , CBRN or CBRNE use , GSG use ( use with hazardous substances and goods ) or use of hazardous substances . In Austria, the term pollutant use is also common.


In Germany , NBC protection for military personnel is the responsibility of the Bundeswehr (see NBC defense ); NBC protection for the civilian population is the responsibility of the Federal Ministry of the Interior within the framework of civil protection or the federal states within the framework of disaster protection (see NBC service ). Here, special units of the fire brigade and other authorities and organizations with security tasks are usually used .

Classification of the measures

The measures can be classified according to the extent of the field of application, method or the hazardous substance or type of weapon used.


Depending on the extent of the field of operation, the detection and measuring equipment required in civil protection and disaster control vary in line with the care levels in civil protection . This corresponds to the CBRN equipment concept for the supplementary equipment of the federal government for disaster control:

  • Level 1: regular (in the civil sector: municipal) measuring technology
  • Level 2: CBRN exploration vehicle ( CBRN ErkW , formerly ABC exploration vehicle ABC-ErkKW )
  • Level 3: additional CBRN ErkW at risk areas
  • Level 4: Analytical Task Force (ATF)


NBC protection exercises on board the Russian battle cruiser Pyotr Veliki
  • Medical NBC protection: prophylaxis , diagnostics, triage , therapy, etc.
  • Military NBC: NBC defense troop (→ detector squad ), TEP ( T 'groups E ntseuchungs P bib: decontamination plant / slot), warfare agent Feel
  • Technical NBC protection: This is divided into
    • Decontamination (radiation, disinfestation, decontamination, detoxification) to restore operational readiness (military) or to return to normal living conditions
    • Detection (exploration) and warning of the danger
    • Protection of life and health
      • Individual or individual protection (protective clothing, protective mask)
      • Collective or collective protection

After weapons

Due to the current threat scenario, protection against the effects of classic nuclear weapons (A weapons) is increasingly taking a back seat compared to protection against chemical (C) and biological (B) weapons, whereas the dirty bomb, in contrast to earlier, a larger one Role play.

If an attack is detected, protection against B and C weapons can be achieved to a limited extent through suitable protective measures; In the event of an undetected or covert attack, such protection is extremely difficult.

For military personnel, at least for sub-units, almost complete protection against B and C weapons is possible, provided that such an operation can be detected at an early stage. Effective protection of the civilian population is more difficult than that of military personnel in the event of a defense, but can still be implemented to a limited extent, since the use of such weapons can be expected here. In the event of an unexpected military attack and especially in the event of incidents in peace, such as B. in criminal files, is almost impossible due to the failure to recognize an attack by unsuspecting persons, the delayed onset of the weapon effect, which naturally occurs especially with many B-warfare agents, and the insufficient number and quality of protective equipment, an effective one Establish protection.

Collective protection

The term collective protection refers to the joint protection of a group of people from NBC weapons .

The term includes the protection of soldiers as well as civilians who are protected from most NBC warfare agents together in a defined area. In contrast to individual protection, e.g. B. through a mask, the affected persons are jointly supplied with fresh air by an NBC protection system.

The protected space can be a vehicle, tent, container or building that is separated from the ambient air in an almost airtight manner. In the protected area, the NBC protection system is used to generate overpressure that prevents warfare agents from entering the interior. On ships and boats of the Navy, this protection is implemented in the form of the so-called citadel, which is completely ventilated in appropriate locations.

Research institutions


  • Andreas Kühar, Klaus Ehrmann: CBRN protection in danger prevention . 1st edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2020, ISBN 978-3-17-030975-3 .
  • Hans-Peter-Plattner: Die Roten Hefte, Heft 36a - Use of dangerous goods . 4th edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 978-3-17-013520-8 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. BBK (2013): Supplement to the disaster control of the federal states for civil protection purposes; Designations (AZ .: III.6-569-00). (Page 4)
  2. engl. ColPro, for Collective Protection