# Dimensions

The relevant, characteristic length dimensions of an object are usually named with dimensions .

Knowing the dimensions is particularly important in logistics and in the shipping industry in order to be able to plan and book the loading of railway wagons , containers , trucks and ships . The planning and handling of dimensions also play an important role in all engineering sciences , architecture , manufacturing technology and more.

## Planning and handling of dimensions

In manufacturing technology there is the sometimes trivial problem of which changes in dimensions are possible or to be expected. Trivial examples:

• A possibly irregularly shaped piece of raw material can be machined on a lathe ( lathe , lathe) to first produce a cylinder and then only a finished part with a smaller diameter and length .
• In a rolling mill , the length and width of a cuboid body can be increased at the expense of the thickness (height). The same applies to dough that is rolled out to cut biscuits.
• A less trivial example: disposable PET beverage bottles are only heated again shortly before filling to reduce transport costs and then inflated to their final dimensions.

Changes in dimensions are also not entirely unknown in the shipping industry. In the case of air freight , inflation of the transported goods or the packaging with reduced air pressure must be taken into account or avoided. A car standing on its own wheels bends in and out during transport and thus changes its height.

A fit clearance is necessary so that parts can be easily pushed inside one another . For a tight fit, roughness, elasticity, pressing in and expansion when heated are relevant.

## Orders of magnitude

The dimensions of objects can be illustrated by comparing them with known objects. Some examples are given in the following table:

object Range in meters
electron ${\ displaystyle <10 ^ {- 19}}$
proton ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 15}}$
Atomic nucleus ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 14}}$
Hydrogen atom ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 10}}$
Diameter of a deoxyribonucleic acid molecule
or a - fullerene${\ displaystyle C_ {60}}$
${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 9}}$
Thickness of gold leaf
size of viruses
${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 7}}$
bacteria ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 6}}$
Baker's yeast - cell ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 5}}$
Diameter of the hair of a human head
Size of dust mites
${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 4}}$
Radius of spaghetti ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 3}}$
Diameter of a euro cent - coin ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 2}}$
Diameter of a cultivated apple ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {- 1}}$
Height of a limousine ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {0}}$
Height of a single-family house ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {1}}$
Length of a soccer field ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {2}}$
Length of a runway ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {3}}$
Diameter of a middle town
height of Mount Everest
${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {4}}$
Upper limit of the mesosphere ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {5}}$
Radius of the moon ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {6}}$
Diameter of the earth ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {7}}$
Diameter of the sun
Diameter of the lunar orbit
Three light seconds
${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {9}}$
Half a minute of light ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {10}}$
Radius of the earth's orbit ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {11}}$
Light hour ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {12}}$
Size of the solar system ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {13}}$
Light year ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {16}}$
Radius of the local interstellar cloud ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {17}}$
Thickness of the Milky Way system ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {19}}$
Diameter of the Milky Way System ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {21}}$
Diameter of galaxy clusters ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {23}}$
Radius of the Virgo supercluster ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {24}}$
Diameter of the great wall ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {25}}$
Diameter of the observable universe ${\ displaystyle 10 ^ {27}}$