Zwickau Mountain School
The Zwickau mountain school was a mountain school in Saxony founded in 1862 and dissolved in 1965 . It served the training of mining supervisory staff , that is, risers . In 1949 it was renamed the mining engineering school "Georgius Agricola" and received the right to award diplomas. The tradition of the mountain school is continued by the West Saxon University of Zwickau .
1850 to 1923
A first mountain school, founded in 1850 by the Markscheider Engelhard in Bockwa , did not last long. The need for civil servants from the coal works in the Zwickau district remained high, and so on April 27, 1860, they submitted a petition to the Royal Saxon Mining Authority in Freiberg in order to establish a mountain school. The negotiations were pushed forward by Oberberghauptmann Freiherr von Beust so that first class lessons could finally begin in 1862. Training at the mountain school should be clearly practice-oriented and clearly differentiated from academic training. On the occasion of his opening speech in Zwickau in 1862, von Beust put it this way: “Your task must be clear understanding and firm practice of what is necessary, not overcrowding with subjects” ( v. Beust 1862 ).
During the war of 1870/71 , many students had to do their military service, which severely impaired school operations. Therefore, in 1872, the students were allowed to postpone their visit to the mountain school by one to two years.
For the 40th anniversary of the mountain school, it was decided to purchase a flag, which was consecrated on October 12, 1902. The right side of the flag was framed in green and showed the Saxon state coat of arms, the left side was framed in red and showed the coat of arms of the mountain school.
In 1916 102 students were enrolled, 72 of them were in the war .
From 1920, Bavarian mountain school students were trained in Zwickau, primarily for the bright coal mining in the Peißenberg district . Bavaria did not have its own mountain school and shared the renowned Saxon facility. For every Bavarian mountain student, 300 M had to be paid.
1923 to 1945
In 1923 the structure of the mountain school was reformed and the Zwickauer Bergschule GmbH association was founded on October 10, 1923 . The "Mining Associations Zwickau, Oelsnitz, Borna and Görlitz as well as the Association of Meuselwitz-Rositzer Brown Coal Works" acted as partners . These provided the school board and the supervisory board. The mountain pre-schools in Zwickau, Oelsnitz and Borna were connected to the mountain school. They had the task of leading pupils who did not meet the school admission criteria to obtain a mountain school qualification. The state of Saxony left the sponsorship. A state commissioner was appointed to supervise the operation of the school.
The Freiberg mountain school was dissolved in 1924 and the Zwickau mountain school took over its tradition, including the library, collections and the mountain school flag.
In 1934 the Zwickau mountain school, like all German mountain schools, was subordinated to the Reich Ministry of Science.
Due to the Saxon Mountain School Association Act that came into force on April 1, 1941, the school was renamed “Zwickauer Bergschule e. V. “renamed. All mining companies in Saxony were obliged by this law to join the Bergschulverein and to finance the school.
During the war (since 1929) the school enjoyed the privilege of being an important military operation. Mountain school students were largely deferred from military service or posted to uk . Towards the end of the Second World War - the Americans were on the verge of Zwickau - teaching had to be stopped on April 13, 1945. At that time the school still had 62 mountain students. On April 16, the US Army occupied the city.
The western part of Zwickau was American, the part east of the Mulde was Soviet occupied. In this turmoil, an orderly school operation was initially out of the question. After the Americans withdrew to the demarcation line established during the Yalta Conference , the Soviet troops occupied the whole of Zwickau on July 1, 1945. The newly founded Free German Trade Union Federation (FDGB) campaigned for the Soviet military administration in Germany (SMAD) to reopen the mountain school, as the specialists were urgently needed. The SMAD also endeavored to get hard coal production going again as quickly as possible and to raise it to the pre-war level. The Zwickau mountain school was the first technical school in the Soviet occupation zone to resume teaching on October 1, 1945 with 33 mountain students.
1945 to 1965
Since associations were forbidden, the school was closed on April 16, 1946 by order of the SMAD as a private educational institution and continued as a state mountain school. The mountain school advisory board had to give up its work. In 1946/47, 186 mountain school students were enrolled again, working underground and receiving lessons on a weekly basis . Full instruction was introduced on April 1, 1949 and the school was renamed the Zwickau Mining Engineering School .
The lack of space was met with the move to the rebuilt building of the former humanistic grammar school, the later Agricolabau, in January 1951. In 1952 the school was renamed one more time; it was now called the Technical College for Mining Zwickau . The foundation stone of the new boarding school was laid next to the school buildings on May 11, 1953 . At the beginning of November 1953, the topping-out ceremony for the first construction phase took place. The assembly hall in Grünhainer Hof was completed.
In 1954, the school was renamed the Bergingenieurschule Zwickau again , and in early 1955 the second construction phase of the boarding school on the Kornmarkt side began.
In 1955, on the occasion of the 400th anniversary of Georgius Agricola's death, the mining engineering school was renamed for the last time: In a ceremony, the Minister for Heavy Industry of the GDR , Fritz Selbmann , named it the mining engineering school "Georgius Agricola" .
In 1956 the fields of mining technology / civil engineering and mining technology / open-cast mining were separated again; From now on, opencast mining was taught at the Senftenberg mining engineering school.
In 1965 a general university reform was carried out in the GDR. The mining engineering school was combined with the engineering school for automotive engineering in Zwickau to form the engineering school for mechanical engineering and electrical engineering in Zwickau . At the beginning of the winter semester of 1965, the fields of mountain surveying technology and geology were spun off and the last students were added to the fields of mining technology (civil engineering), mining machine technology, mountain electrical engineering and engineering economics. This course ended in July 1968, the corresponding distance learning course in 1970.
The mining engineering training of the GDR was centralized at the mining engineering school "Ernst Thälmann" Senftenberg and the former mining schools Zwickau, Freiberg and Eisleben were not continued.
After the engineering school was renamed to the Zwickau Engineering College ( Fachhochschule ) in 1969 , the job titles for the former mining engineering college graduates were subsequently changed and were now Ing. (FH).
Entry requirements and curriculum
The mountain school students had to have attended at least primary school, had already worked in mining and had a police clearance certificate. They received lessons in the subjects of German language, arithmetic , calligraphy , physics , mineralogy , geometry and drawing. In the later years the timetable changed; Subjects were dropped, and many new ones were added, such as mining, bookkeeping, mining, geography and geognosy, as well as engineering.
In the beginning, lessons were held from Monday to Thursday, and later Tuesday to Friday. There were four classes: the IV. (“Preparande”), from which the mountain pre-school later emerged, up to the first class.
In 1875 the curriculum included mining science, mountain police, engineering, technical drawing, mine sheath studies, situation drawing, mineralogical and mathematical revision courses , accounting, geognosy, physics and mechanics, German, mineralogy and chemistry, geometry and trigonometry and arithmetic.
In 1904 the subject “workers legislation”, in 1907 electrical engineering and in 1923 economics were introduced. Also in 1923, the hard and lignite mining disciplines (which roughly corresponded to underground and open-cast mining) were separated.
From November 1924, a further entry requirement was at least three years in mining. An essential part of the mountain school education were visits to various mines and daily operations. During the holidays, the mountain school students completed internships in other German countries.
In 1925, the mine rescue service (equivalent to mine rescue ) was introduced and in 1926 as the final title of "mountain technician", and excursions abroad were organized.
- 1862–1867: Katharinenkirchhof 3 (now Katharinenstrasse); "Rascher's house", now "Alte Posthalterei"
- 1867–1904: Schloßgässel 4; "Flechsig's House" ( bombed in World War II )
- 1904–1924: Äußere Leipziger Strasse 11 (now Max-Pechstein-Strasse); "Beuchelt's house"
- 1924–1949: Schedewitzer Strasse 20 in Schedewitz ; former town hall of Schedewitz
- 1949–1965: Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2A; Georgius-Agricola-Bau - first new building for the mountain school
The mountain school was a private technical school from 1862 to 1946, financed by the mining companies for which it trained the next generation of climbers. The other Saxon mountain school, the Freiberg mountain school, was a state institution whose task was to train steerers for Saxon ore mining.
After 1946, the Zwickau Mountain School became state sponsored.
When it was founded, it was managed by the Mountain School Committee, which was later renamed the "Mountain School Committee". The first committee included: the Kgl. Coal works inspector Richard Kühn in Zwickau as chairman and Gustav Adolph Varnhagen, technical director of the Zwickau hard coal mining association and founder of the association for mining interests in Zwickau, Hugo Volkmar Oppe, operations director of the Erzgebirge hard coal share association, CG Kästner, landowner and coal works owner in Bockwa, AW Volkmann, lawyer in Leipzig and director of the Lugau-Niederwürschnitzer coal-mining association.
When it was founded, the budget was 2,195 thalers for 10 years, of which 500 thalers were contributed by the Saxon state; the remaining sum was raised by the coal works and the city of Zwickau. In 1872 the financing was renegotiated; the state now injected 1,100 thalers a year, which was later converted into 5,100 million. There was also the assumption of travel grants.
Another source were foundations from wealthy Zwickau citizens and mountain school graduates, including scholarships for “hard-working and worthy” mountain school students.
“The following scholarships could be presented:
a) ℛℳ 60 each from the jubilee foundation of the Association of Former Mountain Schoolchildren, the second class mountain schoolchildren Hans Fischer, Josef Jockisch, Rudolf Joerß and the mountain school student union leader Albert Neisel and the lll mountain schoolchildren. Class Kurt Dippmar and Lothar Hertel,
b) ℛℳ 50 each from the anniversary foundation of the city of Zwickau for the lll mountain school students. Class of Werner Schuster and Paul Windisch,
c) ℛℳ 50 from the Kohlenbauer scholarship to the lll mountain student. Class Martin Herold,
d) ℛℳ 40 from funds provided annually by the Oberbergamt, the deputy mountain school student leader Friedrich Geyer,
e) ℛℳ 40 as interest income from the 'Welfare
Foundation for Mountain School Students' to graduate Eduard Pichlbauer, f) ℛℳ 30 each from mountain school funds Graduates Felix Ebermann and Josef Nuhmannseder. "
From the 1900/01 school year the state subsidy increased to 7,350 marks. At the same time, the members of the mountain school committee were obliged to increase their contributions.
In 1912 the state share in the financing of the mountain school was around 50%.
Mining school directors
- Carl Gustav Kreischer (main mining school teacher October 13, 1862 - February 19, 1866, February 19, 1866 - 1871 mining school director, followed a call to the Freiberg mining academy in 1871 as professor of mining science), graduate mining engineer
- Friedrich Hugo Berg (1871–1872, resigned as director to take over the management of a hard coal works in Schedewitz, but continued to teach mining), graduate mining engineer
- August Robert Hauße (1872 - July 1, 1874), mining engineer
- Wilhelm Schulz (July 1, 1874 - April 1, 1881, appointed to the TH Aachen as Professor of Mining Studies ), Kgl. Prussian mining assessor and mining inspector
- Alfred Dittmarsch (August 1, 1881 - retired in mid-1906)
- Johannes Treptow (1906 - † October 20, 1917)
- Becker (provisional), school director i. R.
- Hermann Max Hilgenberg (early 1919 - October 15, 1941), Government Mountain
- Walter (October 15, 1941 -?), Dr.-Ing.
- Seegelken (1945), Dr.-Ing.
- Karl Freier (KPD functionary, managing director: Seegelken, October 1, 1945 - 1949)
- Karl Roskothen (1950–1952), Ing.
- Emil Funeck (September 1, 1952 -?), Prof.
Well-known graduates and teachers
- Johannes Schmidt, head climber at Sachsenz Bergwerks AG and a man from the very beginning at SAG Wismut
- Markscheider Karl Neubert (born June 14, 1900 - † May 3, 1972), mine shedding teacher from 1943 to 1949, later professor for mine shedding at the Freiberg Bergakademie
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