Elfstedentocht ( Dutch ), also Alvestêdetocht ( Frisian ) or German Elfstädtetour , is the name for a natural ice long-distance speed skating race that takes place in the Netherlands and is experienced as a significant cultural event.
An Elfstedentocht is carried out in harsh winters in the Dutch province of Friesland (Frisian Fryslân ) on frozen drainage canals, rivers and lakes, along the eleven Frisian towns with historical city rights , and attracts up to 17,000 runners and 1.5 million spectators. Since the first Elfstedentocht in 1909, the weather-dependent “Tour of the Tours” has been carried out fifteen times, most recently in 1997.
Over frozen canals and small lakes, the almost 200-kilometer stretch from the Zwette Canal in Leeuwarden leads clockwise over ten other Frisian cities and then back to Leeuwarden to the Bonke Canal. The route between the hamlet of Bartlehiem and Dokkum is run in both directions.
Until 1933 and in 1941 the route was run counterclockwise.
|Frisian||Dutch||km from the
The event is organized by the association Koninklijke Vereniging de Friesche Elf Steden ( German Royal Association of the Frisian Elf Cities ), which has around 30,000 members. An Elfstedentocht only takes place if the ice thickness is at least 15 cm along the entire route. For this purpose, the ice may be reinforced in some critical places by implanting ice sheets.
Only members of the association are allowed to take part in the tour. All members who were members on June 1, 2014 are entitled to start. Members who join later can obtain the right to start via a waiting list. This regulation was introduced in December 2014 and has been in force since winter 2015/16. Before that, around 16,000 starting places were raffled, mostly among the members. They had the right to take part in the Elfstedentocht every other winter - if it took place. In addition to the runners drawn, some of those members who were already members of the club in 1986 had the right to start. The right to start is not transferable.
There are two categories of participants: enthusiasts (“toertochtrijders”) and competitive skiers (“wedstrijdrijders”). It starts in groups from the early hours of the morning, starting with the competitive runners.
Anyone who completes the Elfstedentocht in full, collected all stamps and reached the finish before midnight, receives the Elfstedenkruisje , a medal in the form of a Maltese cross. The competitors only get the Elfstedenkruisje if they do not exceed the winning time by more than 20%. There are also separate prizes for the overall winner and the first eleven places in the men's and women's rankings.
Unofficial tours already existed in the 18th and 19th centuries. Officially, 15 eleven cities tours have been carried out so far.
Newsreel on the 5th Eleventh City Cup in 1933
Newsreel on the 8th Eleven City Tour in 1942
Newsreel on the 9th Eleven City Tour in 1947
Newsreel on the 10th Elfstedentocht 1954
|winner||place of residence||Time
|1.||1909||January 2nd||23||7th||Minne Hoekstra||Warga||13:50||189|
|2.||1912||February 7th||63||24||Coen de Koning||Arnhem||11:40||189|
|3.||1917||January 27th||150||92||Coen de Koning (2)||Etten-Leur||9:53||189|
|4th||1929||February 12th||301||114||Karst Luxembourg||Leeuwarden||11:09||191|
|5.||1933||December 16||512||481||Abe de Vries
|6th||1940||January 30th||3,404||152||Piet Keijzer
Durk van der Duim
|7th||1941||February 6th||1,900||1,672||Auke Adema||Frjentsjer||9:19||198.5|
|8th.||1942||22nd of January||4,832||3,936||Sietze de Groot||Weidum||8:44||198|
|9.||1947||February 8||2,061||309||Jan van der Hoorn||Ter Aar||10:51||191|
|10.||1954||3 February||2,735||2,206||Jeen van den Berg||Heerenveen||7:35||198.5|
|11.||1956||14th of February||6.329||4,843||- (*)||190.5|
|12.||1963||January 18th||9,862||126||Reinier Paping||Ommen||10:59||196.5|
|13.||1985||21st of February||16,455||13,290||Evert van Benthem||St. Jansklooster||6:47||196.8|
|14th||1986||February 26th||16,999||14,989||Evert van Benthem (2)||St. Jansklooster||6:55||199.3|
|15th||1997||January 4th||16,738||11,460||Henk Angenent||Woubrugge||6:49||199.6
During the cold spell in Europe in 2012 there was no tour in February 2012. The reason for this was the insufficient thickness of the ice on the route. During the time of the German occupation of the Netherlands, the tour took place twice (1941 and 1942).
As of October 2019.
The Elfstedentocht is very important in the Netherlands. The Elfstedentocht is not just a popular real-world event, but a national myth. It is called "the tour of tours" ( fy : daughter fan de tochten, nl: daughter of daughter). As soon as it freezes for several days in a winter, a new edition of the event is discussed in the media. The Dutch Weather Service ( KNMI ) keeps a dossier up-to-date on its website and publishes extensive model calculations on the expected ice thickness in the following days. Television companies send outside reporters to the channels to report on the increase in ice thickness. The Alvestêdetocht is an important economic factor for hotels, restaurants and the tourism industry in Friesland.
- Since the weather seldom allows for an Elfstedentocht, an alternative Elfstedentocht was set up, which has been held annually in January on the Weissensee in Carinthia since 1989 .
- In 1986, the current King Willem-Alexander took part in the Elfstedentocht, under the allonym W.A. van Buren .
- There are also races and tours in other sports along these eleven Frisian cities.
- Since 1912 there has been a bike tour ( Fietselfstedentocht ) on Whit Monday with (nowadays) 15,000 participants.
- Since 1946, a five-day hike ( 11-city walk ) has been carried out in the week of Ascension .
- Since 1985 there has been a rowing regatta every May, known as the Elfsteden Roeimarathon .
- In June 2019 Maarten van der Weijden succeeded in the floating Elfstedentocht .
- Those who have successfully completed the Elfstedentocht, the Fietselfstedentocht and the 11-Stedenwandeltocht (not necessarily in the same year) have been awarded a handcalligraphed diploma on request since 1987. More than a thousand such awards have already been presented.
- Marcus Jan Adriani Engels: De Elfstedentochen - Friesland, het land der schaatsenrijders . Kuurstra, Amsterdam 1947
- Jan Kaay: Lang's eleven cities: belevenissen op elf-stedentochen . West Friesland, Hoorn 1950
- Piet Maaskant, Jeen van den Berg: Elfstedentocht, 1890-1956 . Oisterwijk, 's-Gravenhage 1956
- Fenno L. Schoustra: Elfstedentocht: de schaatsen scherp . Schoustra, Leeuwarden 1970
- Pieter de Groot, Henk van der Meulen, Willem H. Stegenga: De Elfstedentocht 1909-1985: de complete Elfstedengeschiedenis! . Friese Pers Boekerij, Leeuwarden 1985, ISBN 90-330-1344-4
- Johannes Lolkama: Triomf en tragiek in de historie van de Elfstedentocht . 2nd edition, Wever, Franeker 1986, ISBN 90-6135-415-3
- Johannes Lolkama: De daughter of daughters: de complete Elfstedengeschiedenis vanaf 1740 . Victoria, Akkrum 1996, ISBN 90-71293-09-2
- Ron Couwenhoven, Henny Korver: IJspret & ijsleed . BZZTôH, 's-Gravenhage 1997, ISBN 90-5501-479-6
- Leo van Houten: De Elfstedentocht - een hele toer - achtergronden, belevenissen, adviezen en statistieken . Van Houten, Alkmaar 1997, ISBN 90-901-1083-6
- Ron Couwenhoven, Huub Snoep: Negentig jaar elfstedentocht 1909-1999 . 2nd expanded edition, De Vrieseborch, Haarlem 2001, ISBN 90-6076-452-8
- Gosse Blom: Small encyclopedie van de Elfstedentocht . 6th expanded edition, Eerste Friese Schaatsmuseum, Hindeloopen 2003, ISBN 90-71293-12-2
- Marnix Koolhaas, Jurryt van de Vooren: De mannen van '63. Verhalen van de twaarste Elfstedentocht of all tijden, nu met compleet overzicht van all daughter . 3rd edition, Van Wijnen, Franeker 2009, ISBN 978-90-5194-263-7
The twelfth Elfstedentocht in 1963 is the subject of a feature film by director Steven de Jong entitled De hel van '63 (The Hell of '63), which was released in Dutch cinemas in 2009. Despite bad reviews, the film reached such a high audience that the director received the Gouden Filmtrofee (Golden Film Award).
- Koninklijke Vereniging De Friesche Elf Steden: Veelgestelde varsh
- Nederlandse Omroep Stichting : Leden akkoord: Elfstedentocht raffles van loting
- Lidmaatschap on www.elfstedentocht.nl ( Memento from February 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- www.elfstedentocht2012.nl ( Memento from January 20, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) - not available on October 29, 2019.
- Article in the Netherlands the University of Münster
- Nader verklaard - Elfstedentocht ( Memento of 9 February 2012 at the Internet Archive ) KNMI
- De kroonprins en de Elfstedentocht van 1986 geschiedenis24.nl
- Friese Elfsteden Rijwieltocht ( Memento from March 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) 11steden.nl
- Sports: Maarten van der Weijden swam the eleven cities! NetherlandsNet, uni-muenster.de, June 25, 2019, accessed October 29, 2019.
- De vereniging. Brevettes ( memento of February 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) www.elfstedentocht.nl
- De hel van '63 imdb.de