IT Specialist

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The IT specialist is a state-recognized training occupation in the fields of computer science and information technology . Corresponding training courses are offered not only in Germany , but also in Switzerland , Austria and Liechtenstein . The IHK describes the IT specialist as a computer science expert. The qualification level according to the German or European qualifications framework corresponds to level 4.

Areas of application and work areas

An IT specialist can be used in practically all industries. Most of the IT specialists are employed in larger companies with their own IT department or in independent software and system houses . The work areas of IT specialists are very diverse: It starts with the analysis of customer requirements , the planning , setting up, maintenance and administration of systems and computer networks , through application and database development, software engineering , adaptation, procurement and installation of hardware - and software to tasks in the areas of consulting , training and IT security .

History of the creation of the job description


With the IT specialist training ordinance of February 28, 2020 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 250 ), the training ordinance for IT specialist in Germany was newly and separately drafted. The job description of the IT specialist in Germany was originally introduced on July 11, 1997 together with the three other IT apprenticeships in IT , IT systems management and IT systems electronics in the regulation on vocational training in the field of information and telecommunications technology .


Basic training

The first regulation for the apprenticeship computer scientist dates from December 20, 1993, the first regulation for the apprenticeship computer scientist dates from March 31, 1994. The two apprenticeships were merged with the ordinance of December 13, 2004.

As in Germany, training took place in the dual system between the company and vocational school.

Over time, however, the dual system had to give way more and more to the triple system, as some companies do not have the opportunity to adequately train their trainees in all areas. This knowledge is imparted to the trainees in a third institution or in another company. With the ordinance of 2004 this fact was taken into account by the fact that from there on the inter-company courses are an integral part of the training.

higher vocational education

In Switzerland, the profession of computer scientist with a federal certificate was introduced on October 13, 1998 and enshrined in the Vocational Training Act.


In Austria the apprenticeship computer scientist was introduced for the first time on September 17, 1999 , at the same time the related apprenticeships IT electronics technician and IT businessman were made possible.

For the time being, however, all three newly introduced types of apprenticeship were still regarded as limited training attempts. The experience reports of the training companies and apprenticeship offices should decide whether the profession of computer scientist should be introduced as a regular apprenticeship in Austria or whether it should be discontinued as a teaching profession. Entry into the apprenticeship was therefore initially limited to December 31, 2002, but was extended to December 31, 2004 in 2002 and again to December 31, 2005 in 2004.

It was not until April 10, 2006 that the previous attempt at training in the IT apprenticeship was converted into a standard apprenticeship under the information technology category , with the announcement of Federal Law Gazette II No. 149/2006 .


In the GDR , a similar job called skilled worker for IT or skilled worker for data processing was offered as an apprenticeship before 1980. After reunification, this profession was absorbed in the data processing clerk .

Training opportunities and content



Training as an IT specialist takes place in Germany in accordance with the ordinance on vocational training in the field of information and telecommunications technology in three years in the dual system , i.e. with a distribution of the training content between the company and the vocational school . Under certain conditions, which may differ in the individual federal states, the training period can be shortened to two and a half or two years, e.g. B. through demonstrably good performance in the vocational school or in the intermediate examination and through approval by the training company. Furthermore, evidence of relevant school qualifications, e.g. B. the general higher education entrance qualification to shorten the training period, provided the approval of the training company and the responsible Chamber of Commerce and Industry .

The basic dual concept of training can also be interrupted under certain conditions: Retraining often takes place purely at school, whereby these are usually supplemented by relevant internships , which, at least in terms of their scope, are usually not comparable with the operational part of normal dual vocational training. Have enough school years already been completed, e.g. B. by obtaining the general university entrance qualification at a grammar school , then the training can under certain circumstances also take place entirely without attending a vocational school, i.e. only within the training company. The chambers of industry and commerce regulate further details, as well as z. B. in the context of the definition of compulsory vocational schooling, the legislators of the federal states .

Vocational training as an IT specialist can also be completed in combination with studying at a university of applied sciences . These are so-called "dual courses of study" which, however, should not be confused with the vocational academy model .

In Germany , a budding IT specialist has to choose between the fields of " application development " and " system integration ". Although there are no legally prescribed entry requirements for the training occupation, the majority of the trainees have the general university entrance qualification. Around a third have an intermediate level of education or another qualification.

On a national average, an IT specialist earns 789 euros during his training, regardless of the subject. This remuneration is based on the individual monthly salaries of the 1st to 3rd year of training. The training salary in the first year of training is 955 euros and increases to 986 euros in the second year of training up to 1,049 euros in the third year of training. However, there is a difference in the training allowance between the old and the new federal states: A trainee in the old federal states earns an average of 818 euros per month over three years, while a trainee in the new federal states receives 760 euros over the same period. This corresponds to a difference in training allowance of approx. 7% between the new and old federal states.


application development
specializes in the selection, development, adaptation, maintenance of software and databases and in user training; he uses suitable methods and procedures in software technology, programming languages ​​and development tools ( see also: software developers ).
System integration
plans, installs, maintains and administrates systems as well as networks and uses knowledge in the area of ​​operating systems, computer network technologies and protocols. But the topic of IT security ( firewalls , encryption, etc.) is also important. A typical job after the training is system administrator and system integrator .

Common to both subjects are the core qualifications (database theory, design and query, modern analysis, design and implementation methods in object-oriented software development and system technology, comprehensive knowledge of business analysis, management and control, project planning, communication techniques).

Data and process analysis

(from 2020) Areas of responsibility:

  • Analyze work and business processes
  • Analyze data sources and provide data
  • Use the data to optimize work and business processes as well as to optimize digital business models
  • Implementation of data protection and the protection goals of data security
  • Operation of IT systems
  • Commissioning of storage solutions
  • Programming of software solutions
  • Planning, preparation and execution of work tasks in coordination with the customer-specific business and service processes
  • Informing and advising customers
  • Assessment of marketable IT systems and customer-specific solutions
  • Developing, creating and maintaining IT solutions
  • Implementation and documentation of quality assurance measures
  • Implementation, integration and testing of measures for IT security and data protection
  • Providing the services and completing the order
Digital networking

(from 2020) Areas of responsibility:

  • Analysis and planning of systems for networking processes and products
  • Establishing, changing and testing networked systems
  • Operation of networked systems and ensuring system availability
  • Operation of IT systems
  • Commissioning of storage solutions
  • Programming of software solutions
  • Planning, preparation and execution of work tasks in coordination with the customer-specific business and service processes
  • Informing and advising customers
  • Assessment of marketable IT systems and customer-specific solutions
  • Developing, creating and maintaining IT solutions
  • Implementation and documentation of quality assurance measures
  • Implementation, integration and testing of measures for IT security and data protection
  • Providing the services and completing the order

Exam and graduation

At the end of the training, the audit is before the Audit Committee of the Chamber of Commerce . This consists of two partial exams, both of which must be passed with at least 50%. Part A of the examination is a real company final project (70 hours in application development, 35 hours in system integration), the written documentation, the presentation of the final project and a technical discussion about this in front of an IHK examination committee. The result of the documentation is weighted with 0.5, the results of the presentation and the technical discussion with 0.25 each.

The examination in the application development field is described below. In principle, the same applies to the subject of system integration, only the duration of the operational project is 35 hours.

The IT specialist application development (short: FIAE ) z. B. independently carries out a real company project in 70 hours from analysis to final acceptance by the company. He uses modern methods of software engineering, project planning and economic cost analysis, invoicing and control. He documents this work in a comprehensive project report appropriate to the target group, didactically well thought-out and with suitable means of presentation, in which he analyzes the task in detail, discusses the alternatives, explains the project planning and explains the reasons for the analysis, implementation and test procedures used. In addition, he carries out a detailed profitability calculation, a final evaluation and creates customer documentation. The project documentation includes the functional specification , the test plans and protocols as well as the customer documentation. For this part of the exam it is not necessary (although it is common practice) to submit an actual, working program, as the FIAE does not correspond to any programmer training.

For this project he is also preparing a presentation. He presents the essential technical, economic, customer and user-related aspects of his project in words and pictures in a way that is appropriate to the target group and communicatively competently. He then conducts a technical discussion with the examination board about this work.

The second part of the final exam (Part B) consists of three written partial exams. The first part, the so-called technical qualification, provides tasks for the special subject of the training. The second part, the so-called core qualification, sets tasks at the core of the training. This exam is identical for all four IT professions (IT specialist, IT system electronics engineer , IT system administrator and IT administrator ). Both exams last 90 minutes and are each weighted with 0.4. The last part of part B is the knowledge test in the subject of economics and social affairs. This 60-minute test is weighted with 0.2.

Upon successful participation in these exams, the trainee is awarded the qualification "IT specialist application development" or "IT system integration specialist".

The profession of IT specialist as well as the other IT professions (computer scientist, state-certified, media computer scientist, technical assistant computer science, etc.) are generalist training courses in which, on the one hand, specialist topics are taught in depth, but also all business, work and communication psychology Knowledge to efficiently cover the requirements of customers and markets in the company.

Further qualification

The DQR places IT specialists on the same level as the technical diploma. The next level of advanced training is the IT specialist, followed by the operational IT professional or state-certified computer scientist (same level as Bachelor and Business Administrator) and then the strategic IT professional (same level as Master and Business Economist).

An alternative is lateral entry into the academic system with a degree or part-time study at a university of applied sciences. For IT specialists who started their training with a technical diploma, however, there is the risk of a visually unfavorable curriculum vitae, since the training can then appear to be an unnecessary delay. Entry into research-oriented university studies is only sought in individual cases.

A third possibility is the dual course of study at a vocational academy, with which the bachelor's degree can be formally achieved today. However, the teaching content overlaps strongly with the content of the IT specialist training and, depending on the institution, goes only a little further. The major difference between the DQR level (IT specialist level 4, professional academy degree level 6), which is also reflected in the salary level, is often criticized by IT specialists and is usually the main motivation for undertaking such a course despite content repetitions.

A much-discussed topic is the equivalence to the Bachelor through additional practical experience in the company. A rough guide may be the rule of thumb, double the standard Bachelor's period of study, which is invoked again and again in salary negotiations, but the range of fluctuation in the level is very high in practice and depends very much on the activities actually performed and the experience gained during the time. so that a general statement is not possible. Companies can specifically promote the professional training of their IT specialists by taking into account the academic teaching content of the Bachelor's degree programs in the assigned work tasks and documenting this to the IT specialist as evidence of experience, so that a realistic and objective assessment of the subject matter is possible.


The professional association SwissICT develops job profiles on behalf of the industry in Switzerland. These are revised every 3 years together with educational institutions such as ETH Zurich and various companies. They are not mandatory, but are observed by companies, training centers and career counseling. "The reference work that you are holding in your hands will undoubtedly provide the best overview of the wide range of offers: 'Professions in ICT'", says Federal Councilor Johann N. Schneider-Ammann in the current foreword. There are currently 42 common job profiles in Switzerland.


In Switzerland, training to become a computer scientist takes four years. The teaching locations are the company, the vocational school and the inter-company courses .

According to the regulations on the training and the final apprenticeship examination of a computer scientist, the trainee should use the third and fourth year of training to acquire in-depth knowledge in two of the following subject areas on their own initiative, i.e. through self-study.

  • Hardware configuration and installation
  • Standard software configuration
  • Data transmission and computer networks
  • Telecommunication systems
  • Transmission systems
  • Digital switching systems
  • Software development
  • Data technology
  • Process control
  • CIM components

It remains to be seen to what extent this information corresponds to real professional practice.


In Switzerland there are four different subjects in computer science:

  • application development
  • System technology (system integration)
  • Support (until 2013)
  • IT specialist (from 2014)
  • Generalists

Inter-company courses

The inter-company courses comprise a minimum of 30 days or a maximum of 64 days of 8 hours each and take place in the first three years of the apprenticeship.

The compulsory modules are part of the qualification process.

Possible contents are:

Exam and graduation

At the end of their training, the IT apprentice (with the exception of support) does a specialist work (individual practical work, IPA) for 10 days, during which he applies what he has learned in the company and at school. Depending on the direction of training, this work can be the development of an application, an expansion of existing software or the migration of new software or hardware in the company. During the work, an expert visits the apprentice twice and checks the execution and the previous result of the examination work and asks project-related questions in a technical discussion. At the end of their work, the apprentice submits documentation and the source code. A final presentation, the technical discussion, the project results and the documentation of the line manager assesses (a workplace employee who the apprentice during the 10 day escorted) (possibly 2) and the experts and graded.

Specialization in support

If the apprentice has chosen the field of support (formerly device IT specialist), the training company gives him a task (or several subtasks) that he has to solve during one day under the supervision of an expert.


The school material is continuously checked in modules. After 4 years and passed examinations, the apprentice receives the federal certificate of proficiency.

Vocational school leaving certificate

It is possible to obtain the vocational baccalaureate alongside or after the apprenticeship. This enables the apprentice to attend the technical college without exams.



The training to become a computer scientist takes 3 years and 6 months in Austria, which is carried out in the dual system like in Switzerland or Germany. Subjects are not given in Austria either, training content and examination regulations are regulated by the ordinance of the Federal Minister for Economic Affairs (II332 / 99).

Exam and graduation

The final examination in Austria comprises a theoretical and a practical partial examination, the practical examination itself is divided into an examination paper / work sample and a technical discussion. The theoretical examination is not required if the candidate has proven that he has achieved the teaching objective of the last class of the technical vocational school or that he has successfully completed a vocational middle or higher school that replaces the apprenticeship period. After passing the exam, the trainee receives the qualification “IT”.


According to the customs treaty with Switzerland of March 29, 1923, all federal laws in Switzerland, with the exception of those that are based on a federal contribution obligation, also apply to the Principality of Liechtenstein (see Training opportunities and content in Switzerland above).

Training literature

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. English job title. IHK Darmstadt, accessed on January 8, 2017 .
  2. ceased to apply from August 2020: Ordinance on vocational training in the field of information and telecommunications technology of July 10, 1997 , training framework plan for IT specialists
  3. a b SERI - Basic Vocational Training: IT Specialist EFZ ( Memento from October 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  5. ^ Introduction of the apprenticeship computer scientist in Austria, Federal Law Gazette II No. 332/1999
  6. Introduction of the IT electronics technician apprenticeship in Austria, Federal Law Gazette II No. 333/1999
  7. Introduction of the apprenticeship IT-businessman / woman in Austria, Federal Law Gazette II No. 334/1999
  8. 502. Ordinance: Training experiment transition ordinance for computer scientists 2002 in Austria, Federal Law Gazette II No. 502/2002
  9. Change to the training regulations for the apprenticeships IT, IT electronics, IT businessman and microtechnology 2004 in Austria, Federal Law Gazette II No. 456/2004
  10. ^ Information technology training regulations for computer scientists 2006 in Austria, Federal Law Gazette II No. 149/2006
  11. IT specialist specializing in application development. (PDF) Federal Employment Agency, accessed on September 1, 2016 .
  12. Training compensation for IT specialists
  13. a b
  16. Cologne Chamber of Commerce and Industry :: IT specialist in application development. (No longer available online.) In: Archived from the original on May 13, 2016 ; accessed on May 13, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /